Chapter 14: Marijuana and Cannabinoids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 14: Marijuana and Cannabinoids Deck (73)
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1

amotivational syndrome

Symptoms of cannabis use that relate to poor educational achievement and motivation.

2

anandamide

arachidonoyl ethanolamide; Common chemical name of the arachidonic acid derivative that functions as an endogenous ligand for cannabinoid receptors in the brain.

3

2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)

An arachidonic acid derivative that functions as an endogenous ligand for brain cannabinoid receptors

4

cannabinoid receptor

Receptor for cannabinoids, including THC and anandamide. In the CNS, they are concentrated in the basal ganglia, cerebellum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex.

5

cannabinoids

Collection of over 60 compounds found uniquely in cannabis plants.

6

CB1

Cannabinoid receptor of the metabotropic receptor family located in the CNS; play a role in the reward system

7

CB2

Cannabinoid receptor located primarily in the immune system, but also in bone, fat cells, and the GI tract. Are also expressed by microglia

8

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)

Psychoactive chemical found in cannabis plants; a cannabinoid.

9

endocannabinoids

Lipid-like substances that activate CB receptors. They are produced from arachidonic acid in the body.

10

fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH)

Enzyme that metabolizes endocannabinoids

11

hash oil

Potent oil that is derived from hashish and contains a high concentration of cannabinoids

12

hashish

Type of cannabis derivative that is smoked or eaten.

13

hyperalgesia

Condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to pain.

14

monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)

Enzyme primarily responsible for metabolism of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol.

15

precipitated withdrawal

Method used to test dependence and withdrawal by administering an antagonist to block drug effects rapidly.

16

retrograde messenger

Chemical synthesized and released by a postsynaptic cell that diffuses into the nerve terminal of the presynaptic cell, often for the purpose of altering neurotransmitter release by the terminal.

17

rimonabant

SR 141716; Antagonist selective for the CB1 receptor. It is also called SR 141716.

18

sinsemilla

The potent marijuana produced by preventing pollination and seed production in the female cannabis plants.

19

how much THC is in a joint?

a joint is .5-1 gram of cannabis and 1 gram of cannabis contains 40mg or THC, but only 20-30% is absorbed into the lungs

20

smoking THC

readily absorbed through the lungs resulting in rising levels in the blood plasma

21

oral consumption of THC

leads to prolonged but poor absorption resulting in low and variable plasma concentrations---because of degradation in the stomach and first pass metabolism

22

what is THC converted into?

metabolites-- 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-carboxy-THC which are excreted mostly in the feces

23

half life of THC

20-30 hours

24

what family of receptors do cannabinoid receptors belong to?

metabotropic receptors

25

how do metabotropic receptors (and thus cannabinoids) exert their effects?

coupling with G proteins Gi and Go which inhibits cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation, inhibits voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels, and activation of K+ channel opening

26

where do CB1 receptors exist?

axon terminals

27

what happens when CB1 receptors are activated?

by activating these presynaptic receptors, cannabinoids can inhibit the release of many different neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, and GABA

28

is THC a full CB1 and CB2 agonist?

nope--it is a partial agonist

29

what are the synthetic cannabinoid agonists?

CP-55,940 and WIN 55,212-2

30

what does administration of THC to mice lead to?

1. reduced locomotor activity
2. hypothermia (decrease in core body temp)
3. catalepsy (muscular rigidity)
4. hypoalgesia (reduced pain sensitivity)
--all mediated by CB1 receptors