Flashcards in Chapter 12: Cocaine and Amphetamines Deck (73)
Metabolite formed from the interaction of cocaine and alcohol. It produces biological effects similar to those of cocaine but has a longer half life.
Periods of cocaine use lasting hours or days with little or no sleep.
contingency management program
Type of addiction treatment program in which the client’s drug taking is monitored by regular urine testing and abstinence is reinforced with vouchers redeemable locally for consumer products or services.
Form of cocaine made by adding baking soda to a solution of cocaine HCl, heating the mixture, and drying the solid.
Performance of an operant response such as a lever-press or a nose-poke with the expectation of receiving delivery of a drug dose.
Process that leads to manifestation of a sensitized response and that requires enhanced reactivity of DA nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens.
Behaviors produced by high doses of psychostimulants (e.g., cocaine and amphetamine) and characterized by repetitive and aimless movement.
Smoking the freebase form of cocaine obtained by dissolving cocaine HCl in water, adding an alkaline solution, and then extracting with an organic solvent.
Time-dependent increase in drug craving and drug seeking behavior during abstinence.
1. Increase in liver enzymes specific for drug metabolism in response to repeated drug use. 2. Process that establishes psychostimulant sensitization by activating glutamate NMDA receptors and, in some cases, D1 receptors.
Cathinone derivative (4-methylmethcathinone) that is an emerging abused stimulant drug. It is a member of a group of compounds sometimes called “legal highs.”
Sleep disorder characterized by repeated bouts of extreme sleepiness during the daytime. Symptoms include sudden cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and dream-like hallucinations.
psychosocial treatment programs
Counseling programs that involve educating the user, promoting behavioral change and alleviating problems caused by drug use.
relapse prevention therapy
Treatment program for drug abusers that teaches an individual how to avoid and cope with high-risk situations.
Substance that produces symptoms of sympathetic nervous system activation.
marked sensorimotor activation; increase alertness, heighten arousal, and cause behavioral excitement
naturally occurring form of cocaine
two synthetic forms of cocaine
WIN 35,428 (CFT) and RTI-55; more potent than cocaine
how cocaine is extracted
coca leaves contain between .6% and 1.8% cocaine. Initial extraction of the leaves results in coca paste containing about 80% cocaine. The alkaloid is then converted to hydrochloride (HCl) salt and is crystalized.
two ways cocaine is transformed into cocaine freebase
is smoking crack the same as doing cocaine?
the heat in smoking crack produces unique chemical products that can be detected in the urine
how cocaine exerts its effects
is lipophilic (fat soluble) and readily passes through the BBB; once absorbed into circulation, it is rapidly broken down by enzymes found in the blood stream and liver
how long do cocaine's effects last?
half life is .5-1.5 hours, but the high only lasts about 30 minutes
major metabolite in cocaine; can be detected in urine for several days following last dose
mechanisms of action for cocaine
blocks the reuptake of three monoamine neurotransmitters (DA, NE, 5-HT); these neurotransmitters are cleared from the synaptic cleft by membrane proteins called transporters. cocaine binds to the transporters to inhibit their function which leads to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft and an increase in transmission at the affected synapses.
what neurotransmitter transporter does cocaine bind most strongly with?
5-HT, then DA, then NE
what does the blockage of DA reuptake do?
important for cocain's stimulating, reinforcing, and addictive properties
what does cocaine do at high concentrations?
also inhibits voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels in nerve cell axons which causes a block in nerve cell conduction. Thus it can be used as a local anesthetic by preventing transmission of nerve signals along sensory nerves
behavioral effects of cocaine
high, feelings of exhilaration and euphoria, sense of well-being, alertness, heightened energy, diminished fatigue, self-confidence, a rush, increases sociability and talkativeness, heightened sexual interest, increase in aggressive behavior, increased behavioral activation