Chapter 12: Cocaine and Amphetamines Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 12: Cocaine and Amphetamines Deck (73)
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1

cocaethylene

Metabolite formed from the interaction of cocaine and alcohol. It produces biological effects similar to those of cocaine but has a longer half life.

2

cocaine binges

Periods of cocaine use lasting hours or days with little or no sleep.

3

contingency management program

Type of addiction treatment program in which the client’s drug taking is monitored by regular urine testing and abstinence is reinforced with vouchers redeemable locally for consumer products or services.

4

crack

Form of cocaine made by adding baking soda to a solution of cocaine HCl, heating the mixture, and drying the solid.

5

drug-seeking behavior

Performance of an operant response such as a lever-press or a nose-poke with the expectation of receiving delivery of a drug dose.

6

expression

Process that leads to manifestation of a sensitized response and that requires enhanced reactivity of DA nerve terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

7

focused stereotypies

Behaviors produced by high doses of psychostimulants (e.g., cocaine and amphetamine) and characterized by repetitive and aimless movement.

8

freebasing

Smoking the freebase form of cocaine obtained by dissolving cocaine HCl in water, adding an alkaline solution, and then extracting with an organic solvent.

9

incubation

Time-dependent increase in drug craving and drug seeking behavior during abstinence.

10

induction

1. Increase in liver enzymes specific for drug metabolism in response to repeated drug use. 2. Process that establishes psychostimulant sensitization by activating glutamate NMDA receptors and, in some cases, D1 receptors.

11

mephedrone

Cathinone derivative (4-methylmethcathinone) that is an emerging abused stimulant drug. It is a member of a group of compounds sometimes called “legal highs.”

12

narcolepsy

Sleep disorder characterized by repeated bouts of extreme sleepiness during the daytime. Symptoms include sudden cataplexy, sleep paralysis, and dream-like hallucinations.

13


psychosocial treatment programs

Counseling programs that involve educating the user, promoting behavioral change and alleviating problems caused by drug use.

14

relapse prevention therapy

Treatment program for drug abusers that teaches an individual how to avoid and cope with high-risk situations.

15

sympathomimetic

Substance that produces symptoms of sympathetic nervous system activation.

16

psychomotor stimulants

marked sensorimotor activation; increase alertness, heighten arousal, and cause behavioral excitement

17

naturally occurring form of cocaine

alkaloidal cocaine

18

two synthetic forms of cocaine

WIN 35,428 (CFT) and RTI-55; more potent than cocaine

19

how cocaine is extracted

coca leaves contain between .6% and 1.8% cocaine. Initial extraction of the leaves results in coca paste containing about 80% cocaine. The alkaloid is then converted to hydrochloride (HCl) salt and is crystalized.

20

two ways cocaine is transformed into cocaine freebase

1. freebasing
2. crack

21

is smoking crack the same as doing cocaine?

the heat in smoking crack produces unique chemical products that can be detected in the urine

22

how cocaine exerts its effects

is lipophilic (fat soluble) and readily passes through the BBB; once absorbed into circulation, it is rapidly broken down by enzymes found in the blood stream and liver

23

how long do cocaine's effects last?

half life is .5-1.5 hours, but the high only lasts about 30 minutes

24

benzolecgonine

major metabolite in cocaine; can be detected in urine for several days following last dose

25

mechanisms of action for cocaine

blocks the reuptake of three monoamine neurotransmitters (DA, NE, 5-HT); these neurotransmitters are cleared from the synaptic cleft by membrane proteins called transporters. cocaine binds to the transporters to inhibit their function which leads to increased neurotransmitter levels in the synaptic cleft and an increase in transmission at the affected synapses.

26

what neurotransmitter transporter does cocaine bind most strongly with?

5-HT, then DA, then NE

27

what does the blockage of DA reuptake do?

important for cocain's stimulating, reinforcing, and addictive properties

28

what does cocaine do at high concentrations?

also inhibits voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels in nerve cell axons which causes a block in nerve cell conduction. Thus it can be used as a local anesthetic by preventing transmission of nerve signals along sensory nerves

29

behavioral effects of cocaine

high, feelings of exhilaration and euphoria, sense of well-being, alertness, heightened energy, diminished fatigue, self-confidence, a rush, increases sociability and talkativeness, heightened sexual interest, increase in aggressive behavior, increased behavioral activation

30

physiological consequences of cocaine

increased heart rate, vasoconstriction, hypertension (increased blood pressure), hyperthermia (elevated body temperature), seizures, heart failure, stroke, intracranial hemorrhage