Ch. 10: Disorders of Respiratory Tract Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Ch. 10: Disorders of Respiratory Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 10: Disorders of Respiratory Tract Deck (68):
1

Diff b/w Right main bronchus and left main bronchus

Right is more vertical bc there's a heart on the left side (so most things go to the right)

2

diff be/w bronchus and bronchiole

bronchus has cartilage (can't contract well so bronchiole does more of that)

3

Type II pneumocyte makes

surfactant

4

which pneumocyte more numerous and deals with gas exchange?

Type I

5

measures lung volumes and flow rate

spirometry

6

the amount of air expelled from maximal expiration after maximal inspiration

forced vital capacity (FVC)

7

forced expiratory volume in one second

FEV1

8

spirometry ratio

FEV1/FVC

9

FEV1/FVC ration obstructive disease

low (FEV1 decreases and FVC increases)

10

FEV1/FVC ration restrictive disease

near normal (both decrease)

11

upper respiratory tract disease: viral etiology (rhinovirus)

infectious rhinitis (common cold, upper resp infection)

12

upper respiratory tract disease: very common, 20% of US pop (type I immune reaction, immediated hypersensitivity)

allergic rhinitis (hay fever)

13

upper respiratory tract disease: secondary to recurrent rhinitis, not neoplastic

nasal polyps

14

upper respiratory tract disease: sinus mucus accumulation

sinus mecoele

15

upper respiratory tract disease: usually bacterioal, fungal is especially dangerous (diabetics or immunocompromised)

sinusitis, acute and chronic

(acute= neutrophils, chronic= plasma)

16

upper respiratory tract disease: benign neoplasms, may recur after excision, especially inverted papillomas (HPV etiology)

sinonasal papillomas

17

upper respiratory tract disease: viral and bacerial (ex. step throat)

pharyngitis and tonsillitis

18

upper respiratory tract disease: often secondary to URI

laryngitis

19

upper respiratory tract disease: voice stress, smoking, hoarseness and pain, "linebacker coaches"

vocal cord nodule (singer's node)

20

upper respiratory tract disease: benign, HPC, often recur after excision

laryngeal papillomas

21

upper respiratory tract disease: risk factors are SMOKING and ALCOHOL ABUSE (in concert) ***

carcinoma of the larynx

22

collapse of the lungs

atelectasis

23

atelectasis leads to

poor or absent gas exchange and risk of infection

24

3 types of atelectasis

1) resoprtion
2) compression
3) contraction

25

atelectasis: due to bronchial obstruction

resporption

26

atelectasis: due to external compression, pleural or sub-diaphragmatic(fluid, air- ex. pneumothorax, blood)

compression

27

atelectasis: due to scarring (ex. TB)

contraction

28

2 varities of pulmonary edema

1) hemodynamic
2) microvascular injury

29

pulmonary edema: due to left heart failure

hemodynamic

30

pulmonary edema: due to toxic fumes, hot gas (smoke ihalation), bacterial endotoxins, IV drug abuse

microvascular injury

31

microvascular injury may lead to

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

32

obstructive lung disease: often obsesm M>F, associated with HTN and heart failure, may lead to injury due to drowsiness

obstructive sleep apnea

33

unlike other obstructive lung deases, which on have normal FEV1/FVC

obstructive sleep apnea

34

obstructive lung disease: bronchospasm and excessive mucus

asthma

35

asthma type: allergic, type I hypersensitivity

atopic

36

asthma type: UR, exercise, air pollution

non-atopic

37

asthma type: wood grain or textile dust

occupational

38

obstructive lung disease: bronchial air-trapping

COPD

39

COPD FEV1/FVC ration

low!!!

40

COPD due to..

emphysema and chronic bronchitis

41

parenchymal destruction

emphysema

42

emphysema can lead to...

pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure (cor pulmonale)

43

COPD: most due to smoking, bronchial and bronchiolar inflammation and excessive mucus production

chronic bronchitis

44

obstructive lung disease:always secondary to something else (ex. cystic fibrosis)

bronchiectasis

45

obstructive lung disease: chronic necrotizing bronchial infection leads to dilitation of small bronchi (mucopurulent filled tubes)

bronchiectasis

46

restrictive lung disease: what is the only element of most isterstitial disease?

fibrosis

47

restrictive lung disease: has many names, often grouped under the clinical diagnosis of ( )

idopathic pulmonary fibrosis

48

caused by inhaled dust and fumes, including abestosis

pneumoconioses

49

which diseases go under restrictive lung disease:

pneumoconioses and granulomatous Interstitial diseases

50

restrictive lung disease: important systemic disease under granlomatous interstitial disease

sarcoidosis

51

T cell mediated, chronic exposure organic dusts

hypersensitivity pneumonitis

52

common and can be fatal; almost all originate from deep veins of legs and pelvis

pulmonary throboembolism

53

vacular and circulatory lung disease: associated with immobilization, obesity, cancer, pregnancy

pulmonary thromboembolism

54

vacular and circulatory lung disease: often irreversible and fatal

pulmonary HTN

55

most common cause of pulmonary hypertension

COPD

56

pulmonary HTN can lead to...

con pulmonale (right heart failure)

57

two anatomic types of pneumonia:

alveolar (often bacterial) and interstitial (viral)

58

types of alveolar pneumonia

bronchopneumonia (patchy) and lobar pneumonia (consolidates a lobe...often strep--aka pneumococcus)

59

#1 cause of cancer death in the US

bronchogenic carcinoma

60

what causes bronchogenic carcinoma?

smoking!

61

lung neoplasm: neuroendocrine tumor, less aggresive

bronchial carcinoid

62

air in the pleural space

pneumothorax

63

common causes of pneumothorax

trauma, emphysema, tension pneumothorax, potentially fatal

64

fulid in the pleural space

effusions

65

rare malignancy of the pleura

mesothelioma

66

dieases of the pleura: associated with asbestos eposure

mesothelioma

67

asbestos leads to a ( ) increased risk of lung carcinoma

5X

68

dieases of the pleura: bloody (tumor), whole blood (trauma)

effusions