Ch. 11: Disorders of GI Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 11: Disorders of GI Tract Deck (62):
1

what is the cause of almost all esophageal varices?

cirrohosis of the liver

2

What is the cause of most chronic atrophic gastritis

H. Pylori

3

About how long does it take for an adenomatous polyp to evolve into the colonic adenocarcinoma?

10-15 years

4

mechanical digestion

teeth, gastric, and SI churning

5

most intestinal bacteria are beneficial because they...

produce Vit. K and guard against infective bacteria

6

lack of appetite

anorexia

7

anorexia vs. anorexia nervosa

anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder

8

vomiting, nausea

emesis

9

nausea is a

sensation

10

difficulty swallowing

dysphagia

11

low-volume, painful, bloody diarrhea

dysentery

12

fatty stools (ex. malabsorption syndromes)

steatorrhea

13

lack of peristalsis (often seen post-op)

ileus

14

upper GI refers to...

esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

15

ileus is a ( ) disorder

functional (as opposed to others that are structural)

16

bowel swallows itself

intussusception

17

causes of mechanical intestical obstruction:

1) adhesions
2) intussusception
3) volvulus
4) herniation

18

twisting of intestines

volvulus

19

diseases of oral cavity: congenital anomalies

cleft lip and palate

20

diseases of oral cavity:tooth and gum disease

caries, gingivitis, and periodontis

21

diseases of oral cavity: the most common cause of tooth loss

periodontitis

22

squamous carcinoma of lower lip most often caused by...

sun exposure

23

diseases of salivary glands: inflammation of salivary glands

Sialadenitis

24

diseases of salivary glands: acute causes of sialadenitis

step or mumps

25

diseases of salivary glands: chronic causes of sialacdenitis

autoimmune (Sjorgren's syndrome- dry eyes and mouth) or stones

26

diseases of salivary glands: most are benign

neoplasia

27

diseases of salivary glands:most common neoplasia

pleomorphic adenoma (aka Mix Tumor)

28

diseases of the esophagus: congenital lesions

atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula

29

disease of stomach: congenital pyloric stenosis leads to

intestinal obstruction

30

congenital anomalies of bowels: distal ileum, may have gastric and pancratic tissue

Meckel diverticulum

31

congenital anomalies of bowels: may become infected like appendicitis

Meckel diverticulum

32

congenital anomalies of bowels: small and large bowel, and anus

congentical atresias (obstructions) and stenoses

33

congenital anomalies of bowels: absense of ganglion cells (neurons) in the colon wall neural plexuses --> lack of peristalsis and constriction

Congenital aganglionic magacolon (Hirschsprung disease)

34

collection of vessels in mucosa or submucosa, prone to bleed- older adults, 20% of lower GI bleeds

Angiodysplasia

35

is Angiodysplasia pre-cancerous?

nope! it's just an abnormal growth.

36

polypoid varices

hemorrhoids

37

small and large bowel infections: what cause most infectious diarrhea?

bacteria and viruses

38

small and large bowel infections: viruses for young child and cruises, respectively

rotavirus, norovirus

39

small and large bowel infections: other than bacteria and infection, what also causes infectious diarrhea?

intestinal protozoa

40

Malabsorption syndromes: what is caused by gluten sensitivity

celiac sprue

41

inflammatory bowel disease: what are similar

crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

42

irritable bowel syndrome: what is a common problem with this?

psychological problems common

43

which has the biggest incidive of colon cancer : crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis?

ulcerative colitis

44

are non-neoplastic polyps premalignant?

nope!

45

non-neoplastic polyps that we need to know

hyperplastic polyps

46

are adenomatous polpys premalignant?

yes!

47

examples of adenomatous polyps

1) tubular adenoma
2) villous adenoma
3) tubular villous adenoma

48

familial adenomatous polyposis (Autosomal Dominant) always leads to...

colon cancer

49

what is the 2nd most common cause of cancer death

colon cancer

50

what is a carcinoid tumor?

***

51

you don't get carcinoid sydrome with carcinoid tumor unless...

there are masticies in the liver

52

adenomatous polyps: flat polyps

sessile

53

adenomatous polyps: tubular polyps

pedunculated

54

adenomatous polyps: risk is based on ( )

size

55

what can lead to diverticulitis?

diverticulosis

56

in colonic diverticulosis and anorectal conditions, what are common?

anorectal conditions (fissure, perirectal abcess, fistula, piloidal cyst, proctitis)

57

what is acute appendicits usually due to?

obstruction, fecalith, etc

58

how common is acute appendicitis?

common! (5% of population)

59

complication of acute appendicitis or diverticulitis

peritonitis

60

in peritonitis, what is a risk?

presence of ascitic fluid (cirrhosis)

61

what usually arises from abdoninal malignancies such as ovarian and pancreatic carcinoma?

peritoneal carcinomatosis

62

what type of tumors are carcinoids?

neuroendocrine