Ch. 4: Infectious Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4: Infectious Disease Deck (131):
1

approximately ( ) people have been infected at one time or another by hep B virus

2 billion people (~30% world population)

2

of the 2 billion people affected by hep b virus, about ( ) remain chronically infected and are carriers of the virus

350 million (~5% of world pop)

3

the normal or expected rate of infection in a population or geograchpic area

endemic rate

4

When cases occur at above normal rates

epidemic

5

the number one cause of death worthwide

infectious disease

6

most infectious agents have what type of relationship?

commensal - they benefit but we are not harmed

7

ifectious agents that can cause disease

pathogens

8

Infectious agents are usually microscopic and are typically called

microbes

9

smallest and largest microbe

smallest: protein molecule
largest: intestinal worms

10

T/F: many agents are living things

False: a living thing is something that has its own metabolism and reproduces

11

what's an example of a living infectious agent? non-living?

living= bacteria
non= virus

12

mere molecules, a corrupted form of normal brain protein

prions (PrP)

13

packets of nucleic acid encased in a protein coat (capsid)

virus

14

how do viruses produce their RNA and DNA?

invade the interior or a cell and hijack the cell's metabolism and reproductive machinery

15

what do viruses not have? why is this significant to antibiotics?

don't have cell wall or metabolism
this is sig bc antibiotics' effect relies on disrupting bacterioal cell membrane or metabolism (so not effective on viruses)

16

can viruses exist outside of a cell?

yes but can't multiply

17

can viruses transform infected cells into tumor cells?

yes (HPV causes cancer of cervix)

18

the intestine alone contains about ( ) species of bacteria, most of which are ( )

400
anaerobic

19

can bacteria live outside cell?

yes, they can live and reproduce or in any place given the right nutrients

20

how are bacteria vulnerable to antibiotics?

they have a cell membrane and require energy to live

21

what is an example of bacteria that is an exception to the rules?

chlamydia

22

do bacteria have DNA and nucleus?

have DNA but no nucleus

23

how are bacteria classified?

shape, need for oxygen, and color after a standard stain

24

bacteria:
crystal-violet (deep purple)

gram-positive

25

bacteria: lost color after staining

gram-negative

26

bacterioa: specherical

cocci

27

bacterioa: elongated forms

bacilli

28

bacteria:corkscrew shape

spirochetes

29

two distinctive forms of fungi

molds and yeast

30

fungi: long, branching, multicellular filaments (hyphae)

molds

31

fungi: mulicellular clusters of budding round forms (spores)

yeast

32

fungi: in cool temperatures, usually grow as ( ) but at body temp deep infections occur in ( )

hyphae,
yeast form

33

fungi: infections of skin, hair, and nails are cause by

dermatophytes (tinea)

34

parasites: motile, single cell, nucleated organisms that are capable of reproducing within cells

protozoa

35

parasites: responsible for much illness and death in developing countries

protozoa

36

parasites: inseacts spread some protozoa such as ( )

malaria

37

parasites: protozoa can be directly observed in...

blood smears, stool, or tissue sections

38

parasites: infect about 1/3 of world pop

helminths (parasitic worms)

39

most serious helminth

schistosomiasis (go through snail first then human)

40

parasites: small insect-like creatures that attach to or live in skin

ectoparasites

41

parasites: may cause local skin irritation from bites, but they also may transmit pathogens

ectoparasites

42

3 ways organisms cause damage after infection

1) invasion
2) release of toxins
3) provocation of an immune response

43

the degree of harmfulness of a microbe

virulence

44

most microbes (including viruses) exhibit a preference for a particular type of cell

tropism

45

toxin: from bacterial cell membranes as they die

endotoxin

46

toxin: prouced and excreted from bacteria

exotoxins

47

most endotoxins come from what types of bacteria?

gram-negative

48

viruses generally incite what?

chronic inflammation

49

some viruses (like herpes) causes ( )and others (like human papillomavirus) causes ( )

-cytopathic reaction
-cytoproliferative reation

50

pus-forming reaction (pyogenic) is usually produced by gram-positive cocci such as ( ) or gram-negative bacilli such as ( )

-staphylococcus or stepococcus
-E. col or H. influenza

51

if infection acquired outside of a hospital it is a ( ) infection, it it's acquired in a hospital it's a ( ) infection

-community-spread
-nosocomial

52

mode of transmission from reservoir to new host: sexual intercourse, syphilis, herpes
-most organisms penetrate through breaks in skin or sexual mucosa

direct contact

53

mode of transmission from reservoir to new host: hep A, parasites

ingestion

54

mode of transmission from reservoir to new host: fomites (inanimate objects)- doorknob, clostridium

indirect contact

55

mode of transmission from reservoir to new host: sneezing, rhinovirus

droplets

56

mode of transmission from reservoir to new host: mosquitos, Zika virus

vectors

57

when blood is the main infected tissue, the condition is called ( )

septicemia or sepsis

58

T/F: gram positive organisms are purple while gram negative are red-pink

True

59

T/F: virulence is the ability to cause disease

true

60

T/F: host immunity always decreases virulence

False: host immunity does not always decrease virulence and the host response may actually induce additional inflammation and damage

61

T/F: the incubation time varies b/w diseas

True

62

what are the major categories of infectious agents?

-Prions
-Viruses
-Bacteria
-Fungi
-Parasites

63

Name the crucial differences b/w viruses and bacteria

viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Bacteria can live outside of cells. Viruses are packers of protein w/o a cell wall. Bacteria are more complex with a cell wall

64

An organism called Bacillus cereus grows in reheated rice and can cause food poisoning very quickly within four hours. It is more likely that endotoxin or exotoxin causes this disease?

exotoxin, performed, similar to that os Staphyloccus aureus

65

granulomas are most likely caused by what two types of organisms?

fungi and mycobacterium (TB)

66

the time b/w invasion and appearance of signs or symptoms, during which the organism attempts to proliferate

incubation period

67

may occur in which the patient suffers from mild, nonspecific symptoms

prodromal period

68

a time of maximum acute, typical clinicial signs and symptoms

actue phase

69

time during which symptoms fade

convalescence

70

time during which no symptoms are present but the patient may feel fatigued

recovery period

71

what causes malaria?

plasmodium

72

what causes rocky mountain spotted fever? (wood ticks, dog ticks)

rickettsiae

73

what causes lyme disease? (deer ticks)

borrelia burgorferi

74

what causes plague? (rodent fleas)

bacterium Yersinia pestis

75

agent: bacteria, response:

neutrophils

76

agent: viruses, response:

LYMPHOCYTES, monocytes, few neutrophils

77

agent: mycobacteria and fungi

GRANULOMAS, lymphocytes, monocytes

78

agent: parasitic worms, response:

eosinophils

79

agent: protozoa, response:

lymphocytes, monocytes

80

usual result of acute virus infection

an effective host immune response that eliminates the virus

81

usually infects upper respiratory tact, causing tonsillitis and often presents in combo with conjunctivitis

adenovirus

82

a mjor cause of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood

respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

83

influenza type: less common and causes mild disease

Type B

84

influenza type: severe respiratory infection

Type A

85

the most common cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children

rotavirus

86

virus infection type: rhinovirus, norovirus, measles, hep A, influenza

Acute

87

virus infection type: herpes, hep B and C, HIV, HPV

chronic (persistent)

88

virus infection type: can stimulate the development of neoplasia (HPV, EBV, KSHV)

transformative

89

causes about 90% of nonbacterial outbreaks of epidemic gastroenteritis around the world

norovirus

90

the most common cause of vaccine-preventable illness worldwide

measles

91

virus infections in which the immune system does not eliminate the virus

chronic (persistent)

92

chronic viral infection: virus persists in noninfectious form but can periodically reactivated to cause recurrent disease and new infections

latent virus infections

93

chronic viral infection: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is usually associated with...

oral cold sores and genital herpes

94

a variety of herpesvirus that infects blood monocytes and related cells and causes a wide array of illnesses depending on host age and immune status

cytomegalovirus (CMV)

95

T/F: vaccination against viruses has decreased the incidence of many virus diseases

true

96

T/F: vaccination against viruses increases cancer risk

Fasle: it decreases it

97

what virus is responsible for cold sores? shinles? infection mononucleosis?

-HSV 1 and 2
-VZV
-EBV

98

what virus is most likely to cause gastroenteritis on a cruise ship? the common cold during school year? involve parotids and gonads?

-noroviris
-rhinovirus
-mumps

99

why are influenza vaccines recommended anually?

because the virus mutates

100

gram-positive cocci that cause acute pyogenic infections

staphylococci

101

gram positive cocci: varities of S. aureus that are resistant to treatment with late antibiotics

methicillian-resistant styphylococcus aureus

102

gram positive cocci: S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes

streptococci

103

bacterial infections: very common aerobic pathogens that cause acute, intense, pyogenic infection

gram positive cocci

104

bacterial infections: cause illnesses closely identified with each species

gram positive bacilli

105

gram positive bacilli: diptheria is an acute pharyngeal or skin infection caused by ( )

corynebacterium dyptheriae

106

gram positive bacillus: growns at fridge temp and causes food-borned infections through contaminated dairy products, raw veggies, and raw chicken and other meats

listeria

107

gram positive bacillus: large, toxin producing, encapsulated, aerobic or anaerobic...produces spores capable of lying dormant in soil for decades or longer

bacillus anthracis

108

gram positive bacillus: grow in distinctive branched chains similar to fungal hyphae and are widely found in soil

norcadia

109

gram positive bacillus: anaerobe that grow in animal feces and sol

clostridia

110

gram positive bacillus: clostridium difficile causes ( )

pseudomembranous colitis

111

4 types of clostridia:

1) C. difficile
2) C. perfringens
3) C. tetani
4) C. botulinum

112

the only important gram negative cocci

neisseria

113

2 types of neisseria

N. gonorrhea and N. meningitidis

114

gram negative bacilli: E coli, salmonella, shigella, vibrio cholera, helicobacter pylori

intestinal infections

115

gram negative bacilli: H. influenza, legionella, bordatella pertussis

respiratory infections

116

gram negative bacilli: opportunistic or nosocomial infections

pseudomonas

117

bacterial infections: transmitted by insect bites

rickettsiae and borrelia

118

rickettisia: RMSF,
Borrelia:

lyme disease

119

bacterial infections: corkscrew-shaped

spirochetes

120

ex. of spirochetes

syphilis

121

bacterial infections: often a mixture of organisms

anaerobic infections

122

myobacteria TB is the agent of ( ) while myobacteria leprae is the agent of ( )

-human TB
-human leprosy

123

TB incites distinctive chronic granulomatous inflammation, which features a central area of semi-solid criumbly, necrotic tissue called ( )

caseous necrosis

124

pathogenesis of TB: many infected but few are diseased

primary TB

125

pathogenesis of TB: in about 5% of initial infections, the immune system cannot control spread and infection immediately progresses to active disease

primary progressive TB

126

pathogenesis of TB: arises from dormant primary TB bc the patient has developed a chronic, debilitating disease such as diabetes, chronic lung disease, or malignancy

reactivation TB

127

skin test for infection

purified protein derivative (PPD) test-- aka Mantoux test

128

T/F: anaerobic bacteria are present in the mouth and are responsible for aspiration pneumonia

True

129

T/F: staphylociccus and step are gram postive bacteria that can infect a number of different organs

true

130

T/F: in testing for TB, a purified protein derivative test of less than 15 mm is always considered negative

False: in high risk or immunocompromised patients, it would be considered positive

131

T/F: myobacterium leprae is the most virulent myobacterium

False: this virus only uncommonly infects and causes disease