Ch. 4 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4 part 2 Deck (55):
1

T/F: TB has no predilection for ethnic groups

False: it is more common in African Americans, Alaskan Inuit, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Southeast Asians

2

Are most cases of TB primary or secondary TB?

secondary

3

gas gangrene is caused by which Clostridial species?

Perfringens

4

A new teenage mother refuses antibiotic treatment for her newborn. What is the newborn at risk for?

eye infection and blindness

5

a fungus is a

mycosis

6

mycosis: common and confined to skin, hair, and nails

superficial

7

mycosis: involve the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lymphatics and rarely spread further

subcutaneous mycoses

8

mycosis: caused by dimorphic fungi and produce serious systemic disease in otherwise healthy people

endemic mycoses

9

mycosis: can cause fatal systemic disease in the immunosuppressed, or less commonly in patients with implanted catheters or other medical hardware

opportunistic

10

what's in superficial mycoses that are common but usually minor?

candida

11

fungus infections: group of fungi that usually live as commensals on skin and in mouth, GI tract, and vagina

candida

12

fungus infections: blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis

deep mycoses- endemic

13

fungus infections: aspergillosis and Mucor

deep mycoses- immunosuppresed

14

mucor infection in the nasal passages of a diabetic patient is a surgical emergency. What is the main host factor that predisposes to many fungal infections including Mucor?

immunosuppression/immunodeficiency

15

parasite infections: unicellular, motile, microscopic pathogens with a nucleus

protozoa

16

malaria is caused by one of four species of tiny ( )

plasmodium amoebae

17

parasite infections: infection by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan that infects hundreds of millions of persons anually on the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, and South America

Amebiasis

18

parasite infections: a chronic inflammatory disease of skin, mucous membranes, and viscera caused by species of Leishmania, a microscopic, intracellular protozoan that infects WBCs

Leishmaniasis

19

parasite infections: a disease caused by several varieties of Trypanosoma, microscopic protozoa that infect blood and are transmitted from human to human by insects

trypanosomiasis

20

parasite infections: features preorbital edema, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and ,later, myocardial infection

Chagas Disease

21

hallmark of helminth infections

peripheral blood eosinophilia

22

infect either the intestines or subcutanous tissues

roundworms

23

examples of roundworm infections

enterobius (pinworms) and trichinella

24

roundworm infections: worms crawl onto perianal skin and cause intense itching

pinworm

25

roundworm infections: transmitted by eating inaduately cooked infected prk

trichinosis

26

helminth: trematodes that infect blood vessels, GI tract, lungs, or liver

flatworms

27

examples of flat worms

schistosomiasis, tapeworms, cystercicosis

28

the most important of all worm infections

schistosomiasis

29

flatworm infections: live on skin or hair

ectoparasites

30

examples of ectoparasites

lice and scabies

31

What is the most common infection in the world? In the United States?

Malaria, Giardia

32

Schistomoses can infect which organs?

Liver, intestine, and urinary bladder

33

does reinfection often occur in STIs?

yes

34

STIs: genital and anorectal warts caused by HPV, genital herpes, and HIV/AIDS

Viral STIs

35

STIs: syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia and Mycoplasma infections

Bacterial STIs

36

STIs: trichomoniasis, scabies, and pediculosis (lice)

Parasitic STIs

37

the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide

chlamydia

38

an STI that can cause dysplasia and cancer (transformative virus)

HPV

39

a chronic STI caused by Teponema pallidum

syphilis

40

how easy is diagnosis of STIs?

often difficult or incomplete

41

STIs are difficult to preven becase...

of failure to follow safe sex practices

42

the most common causes of STI-related infertility

chlamydis and gonorrhea

43

sexually transmitted HPV produces two different but related lesions in women:

1) condyloma acuminatum (also most common in men)
2) squamous carcinoma of the vulva, vagina, or cervix

44

untreated syphilis develops through four stages:

primary, secondary, latent, tertiary

45

hallmark of primary syphillis

chancre

46

infection of the genital skin or mucous membranes cause by Haemopilus ducreyi

chancroid

47

what mode of transmission is responsible for the infections of Lyme disease?

tick bit

48

how does each stage of syphilis manifest?

primary syphilis is manifest as a chancre, secondary syphilis is manifest mainly by skin rash and genital condyloma lata. latent syphilis is sublcinical. tertial syphyllus is manifest by brain and vascular diseas

49

T/F: chamydia can be cured with a single dose of antibiotics

True

50

T/F: condyloma lata is begign, cauliflower-like growth of the cervical, vaginal, or vulvar squamous mucosa caused by HPV

False: condyloma acuminatium is caused by HPV.
condyloma acuminatum is caused by syphilis

51

T/F: antisyphilis antibodies remain present for a lifetime

true

52

T/F: immunity against reinfection with STIs prevents patients from acquiring the same STI a second time

False: immunity against reinfection is often not achieved, making reinfection possible

53

gold standard of lab tools

culture

54

lab tools for bacteria, fungi, viruses

culture

55

what are the two most important traditional techniques used to identify organisms?

gram stain and culture