Flashcards in Ch. 4 part 2 Deck (55):
T/F: TB has no predilection for ethnic groups
False: it is more common in African Americans, Alaskan Inuit, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Southeast Asians
Are most cases of TB primary or secondary TB?
gas gangrene is caused by which Clostridial species?
A new teenage mother refuses antibiotic treatment for her newborn. What is the newborn at risk for?
eye infection and blindness
a fungus is a
mycosis: common and confined to skin, hair, and nails
mycosis: involve the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and lymphatics and rarely spread further
mycosis: caused by dimorphic fungi and produce serious systemic disease in otherwise healthy people
mycosis: can cause fatal systemic disease in the immunosuppressed, or less commonly in patients with implanted catheters or other medical hardware
what's in superficial mycoses that are common but usually minor?
fungus infections: group of fungi that usually live as commensals on skin and in mouth, GI tract, and vagina
fungus infections: blastomycosis, coccidiomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis
deep mycoses- endemic
fungus infections: aspergillosis and Mucor
deep mycoses- immunosuppresed
mucor infection in the nasal passages of a diabetic patient is a surgical emergency. What is the main host factor that predisposes to many fungal infections including Mucor?
parasite infections: unicellular, motile, microscopic pathogens with a nucleus
malaria is caused by one of four species of tiny ( )
parasite infections: infection by Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan that infects hundreds of millions of persons anually on the Indian subcontinent, Mexico, and South America
parasite infections: a chronic inflammatory disease of skin, mucous membranes, and viscera caused by species of Leishmania, a microscopic, intracellular protozoan that infects WBCs
parasite infections: a disease caused by several varieties of Trypanosoma, microscopic protozoa that infect blood and are transmitted from human to human by insects
parasite infections: features preorbital edema, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and ,later, myocardial infection
hallmark of helminth infections
peripheral blood eosinophilia
infect either the intestines or subcutanous tissues
examples of roundworm infections
enterobius (pinworms) and trichinella
roundworm infections: worms crawl onto perianal skin and cause intense itching
roundworm infections: transmitted by eating inaduately cooked infected prk
helminth: trematodes that infect blood vessels, GI tract, lungs, or liver
examples of flat worms
schistosomiasis, tapeworms, cystercicosis
the most important of all worm infections
flatworm infections: live on skin or hair
examples of ectoparasites
lice and scabies
What is the most common infection in the world? In the United States?
Schistomoses can infect which organs?
Liver, intestine, and urinary bladder
does reinfection often occur in STIs?
STIs: genital and anorectal warts caused by HPV, genital herpes, and HIV/AIDS
STIs: syphilis, gonorrhea, and Chlamydia and Mycoplasma infections
STIs: trichomoniasis, scabies, and pediculosis (lice)
the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide
an STI that can cause dysplasia and cancer (transformative virus)
a chronic STI caused by Teponema pallidum
how easy is diagnosis of STIs?
often difficult or incomplete
STIs are difficult to preven becase...
of failure to follow safe sex practices
the most common causes of STI-related infertility
chlamydis and gonorrhea
sexually transmitted HPV produces two different but related lesions in women:
1) condyloma acuminatum (also most common in men)
2) squamous carcinoma of the vulva, vagina, or cervix
untreated syphilis develops through four stages:
primary, secondary, latent, tertiary
hallmark of primary syphillis
infection of the genital skin or mucous membranes cause by Haemopilus ducreyi
what mode of transmission is responsible for the infections of Lyme disease?
how does each stage of syphilis manifest?
primary syphilis is manifest as a chancre, secondary syphilis is manifest mainly by skin rash and genital condyloma lata. latent syphilis is sublcinical. tertial syphyllus is manifest by brain and vascular diseas
T/F: chamydia can be cured with a single dose of antibiotics
T/F: condyloma lata is begign, cauliflower-like growth of the cervical, vaginal, or vulvar squamous mucosa caused by HPV
False: condyloma acuminatium is caused by HPV.
condyloma acuminatum is caused by syphilis
T/F: antisyphilis antibodies remain present for a lifetime
T/F: immunity against reinfection with STIs prevents patients from acquiring the same STI a second time
False: immunity against reinfection is often not achieved, making reinfection possible
gold standard of lab tools
lab tools for bacteria, fungi, viruses