Ch 3: Disorders of the Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 3: Disorders of the Immune System Deck (148):
1

to cause harm, all nonself threats must first penetrate the physical and chemical barriers of the

nonimmune defense mechinisms

2

physical barriers and chemical barriers include:

-Skin and conjunctive
-Respiratory, GI, and genitourinary (GU) mucosa

3

1st degree lymphoid organs

thymus and bone marrow

4

lymphatic system includes...

lymph vessels and second degree lymphoid organs

5

2nd degree lymphoid organs

lymh nodes, tonsils, and MALT

6

the spleen is also a ( ) organ but not part of the lymphatic system- instead what does it do?

second immune organ; filters blood

7

type of immunity: present from birth, capable of attacking any non-self substance

innate

8

innate immunity examples

inflammation and NK cells

9

type of immunity: rapid and broad

innate

10

type of immunity: intercepts non-self, learns, programs, produces specific response

adaptive

11

type of immunity: rifle

adaptive

12

"immune response" always refers to

adaptive immunity

13

specialized WBCs

macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes

14

lymphocytes of innate system

NK cells

15

lymphocytes of adaptive system

B and T lymphocytes

16

macrophages and dendritic cells are also called

antigen presenting cells

17

T/F: alcohol impairs the motion of cilia, predisposing alcoholics to respiratory infections

T

18

T/F: immune defense mechanisms are the first line of defense against microorganisms

F: nonimmune is the first line of defense mechanism

19

T/F: filtering mechanisms like the spleen and the lymph nodes are nonimmune defense mechanisms

T

20

Name a prinicpal nonimmune defense system

surface barriers such as skin and mucosa

21

T/F: the white pulp of spleen is made of venous sinuses while red pulp is composed of lymphocytes

F

22

MALT is lymphoid tissue present in the upper respiratory tact and...

GI tract

23

lymph nodes serve as sentry posts monitoring the body for

microbes and tumor cells

24

T/F: vaccines are an example of harnessing the power of the secondary response of adaptive immunity

T

25

T/F: innate immunity requires programming

F: it is present from birth and consists of cellular and molecular defense capabilities that have an evolved ability to attack any nonself substance and does not require prior exposure

26

any substance capable of inticing an immune reaction

antigen

27

what's an antibody?

an antiantigen protein

28

T/F: NK cells require immune programming to be effective

F

29

what two immune cell types are able to migrate freely among blood and lymphoid organs?

lymphocytes and macrophages

30

Antibody production is critically dependent on

helper T cells

31

what are immunoglobulins

large proteins with a complex structure

32

what is a plasma cell

antibody-secreting B-cell

33

immunoglobulin: smallest and most abundant

IgG

34

immunoglobulin: mucosal and breast secretions

IgA

35

immunoglobulin: largest, produced rapidly (first antibody to be produced)

IgM

36

immunoglobulin: B-cell membranes, activates clonal expansion

IgD

37

immunoglobulin: on mast cells, allergic reactions

IgE

38

antibodies are effective by: neutralizing of the ( )

antigen

39

antibodies are effective by: causing cell death by rupturing the ( )

cell membrane

40

antibodies are effective by: inticing an inflammatory reaction to neutralize or digest the ( )

microbe

41

antibodies are effective by: making the microbe more susceptible to ( ) by inflammatory cells

phagocytosis

42

T/F: B cells do not require that an antigen presenting cell present antigen to them

T

43

T/F: B cells react only with antigen attached to the surface of a cell

F: It is T cells

44

T/F: B cells must have T cell support to function normally

T

45

Which antibody does not circulate in blood?

IgD and IgE

46

T Lymphocyte-Mediated Immunity: the effector T-Cell

cytotoxic cells

47

cytotoxic cell CD antigen type

CD8

48

T Lymphocyte-Mediated Immunity: help both B and T cell response

Helper T-cells

49

helper T-cells CD antigen type

CD4

50

T Lymphocyte-Mediated Immunity: regulate the response

suppresor T-cells

51

T Lymphocyte-Mediated Immunity: enable a rapid secondary response

Memory T-cells

52

MHC: display antigens synthesized inside a virus-infected or cancerous cell

MHC I

53

MHC: present on the surface of macrophages and dendritic cells, whose job is to cature and display external nonself antigen

MHC II

54

T/F: Class I MHC display occurs on the surface of every cell in the body except RBCs.

T

55

T/F: T cell activation is more complex and takes longer than B cell activation, and is therefore sometimes called "delayed immunity"

T

56

Name the four types of T cells

1) cytotoxic
2) helper
3) supressor (regulator)
4) memory

57

the result of an abnormally active immune system and are the cause of allergy and autoimmune disease

hypersensitivity

58

Which hypersensitivity Type is T-cell?

Type IV (delayed)

59

Which hypersensitivity: immediate hypersensitivity

Type I

60

Which hypersensitivity: cytotoxic hypersensitivity

Type II

61

Which hypersensitivity: immune complex (antigen & antibody)

Type III

62

Type I Immune Reaction example

allergies

63

Type II Immune Reaction example

autoimmunity

64

Type III Immune Reaction example

PSGN

65

Type IV Immune Reaction example

poison ivy

66

T/F: type IV reactions account of allergies

F: it is usually type I

67

what is the name of an antigen bound to its antibody and circulating in blood?

Immune complex

68

What is the name of the hypersensitivity reaction in which an antibody attaches to a cell and injures it?

Type 3, cytotoxic

69

exaggerated immune response

allergy

70

the inciting nonself substance (antigen)

allergen

71

allergy due to type I hypersensitivity, requires priorsensitization

atopy

72

how is atopy mediated?

IgE

73

severe, acute, systemic atopic reaction, potentially fatal

anaphylaxis

74

T/F: all allergies are atopic

F: atopy is allergy due to type I hypersensitivity, but some allergies may be caused by type III hypersensitivity

75

autoimmune definitions

self antigens become immune targets

76

loss of tolerance to self

imperfect B and T cell programming

77

example of hidden self antigen

sympathetic opthalmitis

78

the antigens in some infectious agent or other foreign protein mayy share antigenic molecular features that copy certain self-antigens

molecular mimicry

79

example of molecular mimicry

post-strep rheumatic carditis

80

systemic or organ-specific disease: systemic lupus erythematosus

systemic

81

systemic or organ-specific disease: rheumatoid arthritis

systemic

82

systemic or organ-specific disease: systemic sclerosis (scleroderma)

systemic

83

systemic or organ-specific disease: polyarteritis nodosa

systemic

84

systemic or organ-specific disease: multiple sclerosis

organ-specific; brain

85

systemic or organ-specific disease: hashimoto thyroiditis(

organ-specific; thyroid

86

systemic or organ-specific disease: autoimmune hemolytic anemia

organ-specific

87

systemic or organ-specific disease: glomerulonephritis

organ-specifc; kidney

88

systemic or organ-specific disease: primary biliary cirrhosis

organ-specific; liver

89

systemic or organ-specific disease: dermatomyositis

organ-specific; skin

90

systemic or organ-specific disease: myasthenia gravis

organ-specific; skeletal muscle

91

T/F: molecular mimicry is caused my antigens on microbes or other foreign proteins sharing common antigenic features with self-antigen

T

92

T/F: antinuclear antibodies are found only in patients who do not have SLE

False: antinuclear antibodies are regularly found in patients who do not have SLE

93

T/F: polyarteritis nodosa is an example of autoimmune vasculitis

True

94

T/F: rheumatoid factor is a circulating immune complex

True

95

Type 1 diabetes is an example of which type of autoimmune disease reaction?

Type IV hypersensitivity

96

Which is the hypersensitivity mechanism in lupus eryhematosus?

Type III hypersensitivity

97

dysfunction associated with systemic or localized deposition of amyloid (misfolded mutant or normal proteins)

amyloidosis

98

Ig light chain amyloidosis (AL): most common, associated with ...

myeloma

99

reactive amyloidosis (AA): associated with ( )

chronic inflammatory diseases

100

Name the two general categories of amyloidosis

-Those due to the misfolding of normal protein and;
-those due to the misfolding of mutant proteins

101

Malignancy of what cell is responsible for the most common form of amyloidosis?

B cells

102

The closest donor matches of ( ) have the fewest rejections and are most likely to be found in close relatives of the recipients

antigens

103

transplantation: patient is both donor and recipient

autograft

104

transplantation: transplant b/w two individuals

homograft/allograft

105

transplantation: across species

xenograft

106

transplant rejection: a reaction that occurs within minutes or hours when preformed antibodies in the recipient's blodd react immediately with graft vasculature

hyperacute rejection

107

transplant rejection: usually occurs within a few weeks, owing to an immune vasculitis; however, it can occur later if immunosuppressive therapy fails

acute rejection

108

transplant rejection: develops over a period of months to years and is mainly the result of prolonged T cell assault on donor cells

chronic transplant rejection

109

Type A: antigen

A antigen

110

Type A: antibody

anti-B antibody

111

Type B: antigen

B antigen

112

Type B: anibody

Anti-A antibody

113

Type AB: anigen

A and B antigens

114

Type AB: antibody

neither

115

Type O: antigen

neither

116

Type O: antibody

both

117

Rh positive: antigens

Rh D antigens

118

Rh positive: antibodies

No anti-Rh D antibodies

119

Rh positive: blood types patient can recieve

Rh+ or Rh-

120

Rh negative: antigens

No Rh D antigens

121

Rh negative: antibodies

Anti-Rh D antibodies (only following exposure to Rh D antigen)

122

Rh negative: blood types patient can recieve

Rh-

123

T/F: most major transfustion reactions are causedby human error

true

124

T/F:infants are born with anti-A and anti-B in their blood.

False: infants do not have anti-A or anti-B antibod in their blood at birth; it's acquired later in life

125

T/F: an Rh positive mother can form antibodies against her Rh negative fetus

False: Rh negative mothers can form antibodies to an Rh positive fetus

126

T/F: Acute rejection is the result of both B and T cells

True

127

Are B or T cells the main threat in tissue transplantation?

T cells

128

What mediates hyperacute rejction?

Preformed antibodies

129

The major crossmatch mixes recipient ( ) with donor ( )

plasma; RBC

130

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: HIV/ADIS

acquired

131

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: secondary to other diseases and/or therapy

aquired

132

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's disease)

inherited-lack the ability to produce normal immunoglobulin

133

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: Isolated IgA deficiency

inherited- recurrent GI, sinus, and pulmonary infections

134

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: CVID (low plasma Ig levels)

inherited- B cell malfunction associated with low levels of plasma antibodies

135

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: Di George syndrome (thymic hypoplasia)

inherited- embryonic failure of thymus to develop

136

acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies: SCID

inherited- a group of inherited disorders affecting both B and T cell function

137

other than AIDS, what is the most common immunodeficiency?

isolated immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency

138

are heterosexual contacts at risk of getting AIDS?

yes, in underdeveloped countries

139

Step 1 HIV: virus merges with the T lymphocytes's cell membrane and injects its RNA into the ( ), where in a reverse of the usual process, new DNA is synthesized from RNA

cytoplasm

140

Step 2 HIV: The new HIV DNA is oncroporated into the DNA of the ( )

T lymphocyte nucleus

141

Step 3 HIV: The infected T lymphocyte then synthesizes new ( ), which buds from the cell membrane as a new HIV virus, after which the infected T lymphocyte dies

HIV RNA

142

T/F: most immune deficiencies are aquired

T

143

T/F: the HIV virus attackes both B and T cells directly

False: it attacks T cells only

144

T/F: HIV is spread mainly by semen and blood

True

145

T/F: the diagnosis of AIDS depends primarily on finding AIDS-related disease

True

146

name in order the three phases of HIV infection:

1) acute viral syndrome
2) chronic infection
3) AIDS

147

What is the therapy that prolongs life in HIV-infected individuals?

HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy)

148

Why are patients with AIDS at high risk for malignancy?

falied immune surveillance