Flashcards in Ch. 8: Disorders of Blood Vessels Deck (82):
all vessels and heart chambers lined by what?
blood vessel: high pressure, low volume; elastic, muscular, thick walls
2/3 of blood in what?
venous system (only 1/3 in arteriole system)
what controls the resistance?
arterioles (dilate and constrict:
blood vessel:low pressure, high volume; compliant, thin walls
blood vessel:endothelium only
CO * peripheral resistance
HR * SV
peripheral resistance varies inversely with ( )
fourth power of vessel radius
peripheral resistance is mainly influenced by
what plays a role in BP homeostatis?
difference b/w lipid and fat
fat is solid at room temp
what influence vascular health and disease?
plasma lipid: slick, organic, not soluble in H20, liquid at room tepm
plasma lipid: a lipid that is sold at room temp
lipids in blood are attached to apoprotein to form ( )
lipids are sorted by...
density and chemistry
High (HD), low (LD), very low (VLD)
cholesterol and triglyceride
is "normal" a useful concept for plasma lipids?
no, "optimal" is better
combination plasma lipids
LDL-Chol, HDL-Chole, triglyceride (VLDL)
what are necessary in the production of atherosclerosis (AS) but are NOT the primary CAUSE...what is the primary cause?
blood lipids; damaged endothelium
lowering blood cholestrol 50 mg/dL cuts risk by...
AS doesn't occur around what LDL-cholesterol?
Hypertensive vascular disease begins with ( ) and evolves
what is the cause of most hypertension?
what damages arteries and organs?
what treatment is usually effective for HVD?
diet and drug
classification: normal BP
<120 (systolic) and 80 (diastolic)
120-139 (systolic) or 80-89 (diastolic)
140-159 *systolic) or 90-99 (diastolic)
classification: stage 2
>/= 160 (systolic) or >/= 100 (diastolic)
Initiate Rx for BP: age < 60
drug Rx diastolic >90. systolic >140
initiate Rx for BP: age >60
drug Rx distolic <90, systolic >150
Initiate Rx for BP: diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD)
drug Rx >140/90
Rx target BP
Black drug Rx for BP
thiazides or CCBs
non-Black drug Rx for BP
thiazides, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), ACE inhibitors, ACEs receptor blockers (ARBs)
CKD drug Rx for BP
ACEs or ARBs
escalation Rx for BP: okay to try max doses when?
in sequential trial or submaximal in combination
SPRINT Trial (systoltic BP intervential Trial): Rx targer=
systolic < 120
HVD begins with ( ) and evolves
95% of cases: unknown cause=
genetic risk factors for HTN (hypertension)
African American, male
what is the key in BP control
other influences in HTN
stress, obesity, smoking, indolence
about ( ) of HTN can be linked to specific causes
what is HTN that can be linked to specific causes?
ex. of secondary HTN
rendovascular HTN, excess cortisol, adrenal medullary tumor secretion of epinephrine/norepinephrine
HTN are ( ) until complications arise
silent (can't feel it)
complications from HTN
LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), kidney failure, hemorrhagic stroke, retinopathey
HTN accelerates what?
AS begins with...
T/F: AS only needs endothelial injury to come about
F: lipids are also essential!
C-reactive protein means...
inflammation is going on somether in the body and it couldbe due to AS
what is the cause of most atheroscleotic complications?
how does AS do damage: tturbulent flow, demand insufficiency
gradual stenosis (old atheromas)
how does AS do damage: tintraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, thrombosis
sudden closure (young atheromas)
a localized dilation of artery or heart chamber
what is the main cause of an aneurysm?
AS and HTN
what is the most common aneurysm?
Abdomincal arotic aneurysm (AAA)
what looks like an aneurysm but is not?
what is longitudinal tearing with dissecting hemorrhage b/w layers of wall
dessecting hematoma: massive hemorrhage, usually fatal
dissecting hematoma: may go undetected
the vast majority of vasculitis is because of
vasculitis: 25% of cases associated with polymyalgia rheumatica
vasculitis:grandulomatous inflammation of aorta and branches
vasculitis: vessels of hands and feet of young heavy smokers; painful ulcers, gangrene
thromboangitis obliterans (Buerger disease)
exaggerated vasomotor reactivity of small arteries and veins in hands and fingers; sometimes nose, lips, ears
Raynaud Syndrome (Phenomenon)
Raynaud Phenomenon: most cases in...
Raynaud Phenomenon: triggers
cold, emotional stress
diseases of veins: incompetent valves from age-related relaxation of wall
diseases of veins: varicose veins involve increased ( ) in lower leg
diseases of veins: in varicose veins, which veins are most affected?
diseases of veins: statis, poor BF, skin atrophy, ulceration
diseases of veins: combinations of inflammation and thrombosis
diseases of veins: what is a common cause of thrombophlebitis?
diseases of veins: what is a danger in thrombophlebitis
thromboembolism (can lead to instantaneous death)
types of hemangioma
1) nevus flammeus and other congenital
2) spider angioma
3) arteriovenous malformation