Ch. 8: Disorders of Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 8: Disorders of Blood Vessels Deck (82):
1

all vessels and heart chambers lined by what?

endothelium

2

blood vessel: high pressure, low volume; elastic, muscular, thick walls

arteries

3

2/3 of blood in what?

venous system (only 1/3 in arteriole system)

4

what controls the resistance?

arterioles (dilate and constrict:

5

blood vessel:low pressure, high volume; compliant, thin walls

veins

6

blood vessel:endothelium only

capillaries

7

BP=

CO * peripheral resistance

8

CO=

HR * SV

9

peripheral resistance varies inversely with ( )

fourth power of vessel radius
(PR= 1/r^4)

10

peripheral resistance is mainly influenced by

arterioles

11

what plays a role in BP homeostatis?

kidneys

12

difference b/w lipid and fat

fat is solid at room temp

13

what influence vascular health and disease?

plasma lipids

14

plasma lipid: slick, organic, not soluble in H20, liquid at room tepm

lipid

15

plasma lipid: a lipid that is sold at room temp

fat

16

lipids in blood are attached to apoprotein to form ( )

lipoprotein

17

lipids are sorted by...

density and chemistry

18

lipid densities

High (HD), low (LD), very low (VLD)

19

lipid chemistry

cholesterol and triglyceride

20

is "normal" a useful concept for plasma lipids?

no, "optimal" is better

21

triglyceride density

VLDL

22

combination plasma lipids

LDL-Chol, HDL-Chole, triglyceride (VLDL)

23

what are necessary in the production of atherosclerosis (AS) but are NOT the primary CAUSE...what is the primary cause?

blood lipids; damaged endothelium

24

lowering blood cholestrol 50 mg/dL cuts risk by...

50%

25

AS doesn't occur around what LDL-cholesterol?

150 mg/dL

26

Hypertensive vascular disease begins with ( ) and evolves

endothelial injury

27

what is the cause of most hypertension?

unkown

28

what damages arteries and organs?

hypertension

29

what treatment is usually effective for HVD?

diet and drug

30

classification: normal BP

<120 (systolic) and 80 (diastolic)

31

classification:prehypertension

120-139 (systolic) or 80-89 (diastolic)

32

classification:stage 1

140-159 *systolic) or 90-99 (diastolic)

33

classification: stage 2

>/= 160 (systolic) or >/= 100 (diastolic)

34

Initiate Rx for BP: age < 60

drug Rx diastolic >90. systolic >140

35

initiate Rx for BP: age >60

drug Rx distolic <90, systolic >150

36

Initiate Rx for BP: diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD)

drug Rx >140/90

37

Rx target BP

<140/90

38

Black drug Rx for BP

thiazides or CCBs

39

non-Black drug Rx for BP

thiazides, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), ACE inhibitors, ACEs receptor blockers (ARBs)

40

CKD drug Rx for BP

ACEs or ARBs

41

escalation Rx for BP: okay to try max doses when?

in sequential trial or submaximal in combination

42

SPRINT Trial (systoltic BP intervential Trial): Rx targer=

systolic < 120

43

HVD begins with ( ) and evolves

endothelial injury

44

95% of cases: unknown cause=

primary hypertension

45

genetic risk factors for HTN (hypertension)

African American, male

46

what is the key in BP control

kidneys

47

other influences in HTN

stress, obesity, smoking, indolence

48

about ( ) of HTN can be linked to specific causes

5%

49

what is HTN that can be linked to specific causes?

secondary HTN

50

ex. of secondary HTN

rendovascular HTN, excess cortisol, adrenal medullary tumor secretion of epinephrine/norepinephrine

51

HTN are ( ) until complications arise

silent (can't feel it)

52

complications from HTN

LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy), kidney failure, hemorrhagic stroke, retinopathey

53

HTN accelerates what?

atherosclerosis

54

AS begins with...

endothelial injury

55

T/F: AS only needs endothelial injury to come about

F: lipids are also essential!

56

C-reactive protein means...

inflammation is going on somether in the body and it couldbe due to AS

57

what is the cause of most atheroscleotic complications?

obstructed BF

58

how does AS do damage: tturbulent flow, demand insufficiency

gradual stenosis (old atheromas)

59

how does AS do damage: tintraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, thrombosis

sudden closure (young atheromas)

60

a localized dilation of artery or heart chamber

aneurysm

61

what is the main cause of an aneurysm?

AS and HTN

62

what is the most common aneurysm?

Abdomincal arotic aneurysm (AAA)

63

what looks like an aneurysm but is not?

dissecting hematoma

64

what is longitudinal tearing with dissecting hemorrhage b/w layers of wall

dissecting hematoma

65

dessecting hematoma: massive hemorrhage, usually fatal

exit tear

66

dissecting hematoma: may go undetected

reentry tear

67

the vast majority of vasculitis is because of

autoimmune

68

vasculitis: 25% of cases associated with polymyalgia rheumatica

temporal arteries

69

vasculitis:grandulomatous inflammation of aorta and branches

Takayasu arteritis

70

vasculitis: vessels of hands and feet of young heavy smokers; painful ulcers, gangrene

thromboangitis obliterans (Buerger disease)

71

exaggerated vasomotor reactivity of small arteries and veins in hands and fingers; sometimes nose, lips, ears

Raynaud Syndrome (Phenomenon)

72

Raynaud Phenomenon: most cases in...

women

73

Raynaud Phenomenon: triggers

cold, emotional stress

74

diseases of veins: incompetent valves from age-related relaxation of wall

varicose veins

75

diseases of veins: varicose veins involve increased ( ) in lower leg

hydrostatic pressure

76

diseases of veins: in varicose veins, which veins are most affected?

superficial veins

77

diseases of veins: statis, poor BF, skin atrophy, ulceration

varicose veins

78

diseases of veins: combinations of inflammation and thrombosis

thrombophlebitis

79

diseases of veins: what is a common cause of thrombophlebitis?

immobility

80

diseases of veins: what is a danger in thrombophlebitis

thromboembolism (can lead to instantaneous death)

81

types of hemangioma

1) nevus flammeus and other congenital
2) spider angioma
3) arteriovenous malformation

82

tumors of blood and lymphatic vessels

1) hemangioma
2) lymmphangioma
3) kaposi sarcoma
4) angiosarcoma