Ch. 9: Disorders of the Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9: Disorders of the Heart Deck (55):
1

forward effect of RV heart failire

negligible

2

what is normall the only avenue for electrical signals to pass from atria to ventricles?

bundle of His

3

myocardial cells function together like what?

a single large cell...contraction is all or nothing

4

what ensure one-way BF?

cardiac valves

5

what supply blood to the heart?

coronary arteries

6

record the voltage changes with each heartbeat

ECG

7

what transmits the signal for each heartbeat?

CCS

8

atria and ventricles are ( )

electrically separated

9

Heart failure is an inability to ( ) OR demand satisfied only by ( )

-metabolic demand
-ventricular dilation

10

3 aspects to heart failure

1) systolic or diastolic failure
2) forward and backward effect
3) compensated or uncompensated failure

11

systolic failure

decreased SV/contractile power (ex. infarct)

12

siastolic failure

impaired filling (SV and contractile power is okay) -- ex. stiff or diseased muscle

13

forward effect

low CO, downstream hypoxia

14

backward effect

upstream venous congestion

15

frank starling curve example of...

compensated or uncompensated failure

16

what does heart disease manifest as?

-decreased CO
-increased cardiac effort

17

5 mechanisms of heart disease

1) pump failure
2) obstructed flow (coronary AS or valve stenosis)
3) valve regurgitation
4) shunt
5) abnormal conduction

18

LV forward effect

low flow, hypoxia, organ failure

19

LV backward effect

pulmonary congestion, edema

20

LVF or RVF common?

LVF: caused by infarct, valve disease

21

RVF forward effect

low pulmonary perfusion (of little clinical consequence)

22

RVF backward effect

systemic venous congestion (enlarged liver, spleen; dependent edema...ex, legs)

23

RVF usual cause

lung congestion from LVF; less often due to lung disease(which blocks pulmonary arterial flow, cause pulmonar hypertension and RV hypertrophy-- [COR PULMONALE]

24

heart failure treatment: lessens cardiac demand

weight loss

25

heart failure treatment: lowers BV and lessens cardiac demand

sodium restriction

26

what type of disease is coronary artery disease?

a lifestyle disease

27

most common cause of death in US

coronary artery disease (~1/3)

28

half of all acut MIs occur is which people?

people with few or no risk factors and no prior symptoms

29

obstructed coronary BF causes...

myocardial ischemia

30

predictible angia (exercise and stuff)

stable angina

31

unpredictable angina (not due to exercise)

unstable angina

32

acute ischemia produces what effects?

angina andmyocardial infarction

33

circumscribed area of muscle necrosis caused by ischemia downstram of atheromatous plaque rupture, hmorrhage, ulceration that precipitates an occlusive thrombosis

myocardial infarction

34

what should be suspected in adults with chest pain?

coronary artery disease (CAD)

35

blood markers of CAD

enzymes and cardiac troponin

36

chest pains with nausea and vomiting

myocardial infarction

37

what is the most common cause of valve disease?

degenration (age-related)

38

what is a cause of valve disease?

rheumatic fever

39

what is usualy a disease of valves?

endocarditis (infection of interior of heart)

40

inflammation of the myocardium

myocarditis

41

myocarditis if usually ( ) and presents as failure or arrhythmia

viral

42

non-inflammatory, intrinsic diseases of cardiac muscle

cardiomyopathies

43

cardiomyopathies: cause usually unkown (some are genetic)

primary

44

cardiomyopathies: chronic ischemia (CAD), left ventricular hypertophy, others (ex. amyloidosis)

secondary

45

3 anatomic types of cardiomyopathies

1) dilated
2) hypertophic
3) restrictive

46

cardiomyopathies: common, viral, genetic, alcoholic, chronic ischemia

dilated (congestive)

47

cardiomyopathies: half genetic, others unkown

hypertophic

48

cardiomyopathies: rare, most genetic (endomyocardial fibrosis)

restrictive

49

what is one cause of ventricular hypertrophy and dysfuction?

HTN (LV= systemic HTN or RV= pulmonary HTN)

50

right to left shunts are ( )

cyanotic

51

left to right shunts are

non-cyanotic (atiral or ventricular septal defect)

52

how common are tumors of the heart

very rare

53

90% of primary heart tumors

myxoma

54

normal cardiac rhythm depends on..

unique anatomy and electrophysiology

55

atrial fibrillation vs flutter

fibilation is random, flutter is regular