Flashcards in Ch. 9: Disorders of the Heart Deck (55):
forward effect of RV heart failire
what is normall the only avenue for electrical signals to pass from atria to ventricles?
bundle of His
myocardial cells function together like what?
a single large cell...contraction is all or nothing
what ensure one-way BF?
what supply blood to the heart?
record the voltage changes with each heartbeat
what transmits the signal for each heartbeat?
atria and ventricles are ( )
Heart failure is an inability to ( ) OR demand satisfied only by ( )
3 aspects to heart failure
1) systolic or diastolic failure
2) forward and backward effect
3) compensated or uncompensated failure
decreased SV/contractile power (ex. infarct)
impaired filling (SV and contractile power is okay) -- ex. stiff or diseased muscle
low CO, downstream hypoxia
upstream venous congestion
frank starling curve example of...
compensated or uncompensated failure
what does heart disease manifest as?
-increased cardiac effort
5 mechanisms of heart disease
1) pump failure
2) obstructed flow (coronary AS or valve stenosis)
3) valve regurgitation
5) abnormal conduction
LV forward effect
low flow, hypoxia, organ failure
LV backward effect
pulmonary congestion, edema
LVF or RVF common?
LVF: caused by infarct, valve disease
RVF forward effect
low pulmonary perfusion (of little clinical consequence)
RVF backward effect
systemic venous congestion (enlarged liver, spleen; dependent edema...ex, legs)
RVF usual cause
lung congestion from LVF; less often due to lung disease(which blocks pulmonary arterial flow, cause pulmonar hypertension and RV hypertrophy-- [COR PULMONALE]
heart failure treatment: lessens cardiac demand
heart failure treatment: lowers BV and lessens cardiac demand
what type of disease is coronary artery disease?
a lifestyle disease
most common cause of death in US
coronary artery disease (~1/3)
half of all acut MIs occur is which people?
people with few or no risk factors and no prior symptoms
obstructed coronary BF causes...
predictible angia (exercise and stuff)
unpredictable angina (not due to exercise)
acute ischemia produces what effects?
angina andmyocardial infarction
circumscribed area of muscle necrosis caused by ischemia downstram of atheromatous plaque rupture, hmorrhage, ulceration that precipitates an occlusive thrombosis
what should be suspected in adults with chest pain?
coronary artery disease (CAD)
blood markers of CAD
enzymes and cardiac troponin
chest pains with nausea and vomiting
what is the most common cause of valve disease?
what is a cause of valve disease?
what is usualy a disease of valves?
endocarditis (infection of interior of heart)
inflammation of the myocardium
myocarditis if usually ( ) and presents as failure or arrhythmia
non-inflammatory, intrinsic diseases of cardiac muscle
cardiomyopathies: cause usually unkown (some are genetic)
cardiomyopathies: chronic ischemia (CAD), left ventricular hypertophy, others (ex. amyloidosis)
3 anatomic types of cardiomyopathies
cardiomyopathies: common, viral, genetic, alcoholic, chronic ischemia
cardiomyopathies: half genetic, others unkown
cardiomyopathies: rare, most genetic (endomyocardial fibrosis)
what is one cause of ventricular hypertrophy and dysfuction?
HTN (LV= systemic HTN or RV= pulmonary HTN)
right to left shunts are ( )
left to right shunts are
non-cyanotic (atiral or ventricular septal defect)
how common are tumors of the heart
90% of primary heart tumors
normal cardiac rhythm depends on..
unique anatomy and electrophysiology