Ch. 24: aging, stress, exercise and pain Flashcards Preview

Pathology > Ch. 24: aging, stress, exercise and pain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 24: aging, stress, exercise and pain Deck (51):
1

age-related deterioration

senescence

2

senescence occurs ( )

cell by cell

3

what body systems do senescence affect?

all of them

4

causes senescence: damaged cells are less ( )

robust

5

causes senescence:reactive oxygen species (oxidants) vs ( )

antioxidants (vitamins C and E)

6

causes senescence: telomeres and cell ( )

retirement

7

causes senescence:excessive ( )

apoptosis

8

causes senescence: genetic disorders of accelerated aging

progeria

9

progeria is usually a ( ) mutation...is it heriatable?

spontaneous point mutation; not heritable

10

what does progeria interfere with?

cells ability to reproduce (no new cells to replace old ones)

11

how common is progeria?

very rare; many varieties

12

progeria: few survive to what age?

15

13

progeria: cause of death is usually what?

atherosclerosis

14

how senescence affects skin

sunlight damage

15

how senescence affects musculoskeletal

osteoporosis, myoatrophy, osteoarthritis

16

how senescence affects CVS

limited max HR, output; hypertension

17

how senescence affects respiratory

decreased capacity; COPD

18

how senescence affects GI

liver slow to clear drugs, toxins; poor nutrition, constipation, dehydration

19

how senescence affects GU

low GFR, incontinence, vaginal dryness, erectile dysfunction

20

how senescence affects CNS

decline of cognitive power, reflexes; Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

21

how senescence affects Senses

deafness, loss of smell, dry eyes

22

what is the key of stress

perception

23

the stress response includes what 3 phases?

alarm, adaption, exhaustion

24

stress response phase: sympathetic NS, endocrine; fight or flight

alarm

25

stress response phase: perception; physical

adaptation

26

stress response phase: failed adaptation

exhaustion

27

stress exhaustion harms ( )

cells and systems

28

stress and cells/systems: common link

cortisol= impaired immune function= impaired glucose metabolism (diabetes) and immune surveillance (cancers)

29

physical stress

chronic inflammation (atherosclerosis accelerated aging, impaired DNA repair mechanism, oxidative stress)

30

mental stress: acute

terrorizing flashbacks, panic, withdrawal

31

mental stress: chronic

PTSD, longer version of acute

32

immobility: muskuloskeletal

atrophy, flexion contractures, osteopenia

33

immobility: skin

decubitis (pressure) ulcers

34

immobility: CVS

deep venous thrombosis

35

immobility: respiratory

hypoventilation, pneumonia

36

immobility: GI

contipation

37

sensation apart from origin

referred pain

38

pain is classified by ( )

duration and origin

39

pain classification: disappears with healing, associated with anxiety, tachycardia, tachypnea

acute

40

for pain to be classified as chronic, how long must pain be?

more than one month

41

pain classification: signal from pain receptors in injured site

nociceptive

42

pain classification: injury to or dysfunction of nervous system

neuropathic

43

options in pain treatment are largely ( )

pharmacologic

44

patients lack ( ) to say what pain is

verbal

45

chronic pain mechanism: injury heals, pain remains

sensitized transmission circuits

46

chronic pain mechanism: pain relief by antidepressants, anticonvulsants

variable cortical interpretation (perception)

47

chronic pain: ( ) involves nervous system damage or dysfunction

neuropathic pain

48

chronic pain pharacologic treatments:

analgesia, anethesia, anti-inflammaotory

49

mechanisms that may provoke chronic pain

1) chronic injury and altered perception (fibromyalgia)
2) accelerated cellular aging
3) increased oxidative stress

50

chronic pain: involves nervous system damage or dysfunction

neuropathic pain

51

neuropathic pain: relfex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia

complex regional pain syndrome