ch 11 urinary part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch 11 urinary part 2 Deck (39)
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1

anuria

absence of urine production or output

2

bladder neck (BNO)

blockage at the base of the bladder that reduces or prevents urine from passing into the uretha

3

cystocele

prolapsing or downward displacement of the bladder due to weakening of the supporting tissues between a women's bladder and vagina

4

dysuria

painful or difficult urination, commonly described as a "burning sensation" while urinating

5

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

any type of kidney disease in which there is little or no remaining kidney function, requiring the patient to undergo dialysis or kidney transplant for survival

6

enuresis

involuntary discharge of urine; also called incontinence

7

fistula

abnormal passage from a hollow organ to the surface or from one organ to another

8

hydronephrosis

abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and the calyces of one or both kidneys due to pressure from accumulated urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in the urinary tract

9

interstitial cystitis (IC)

chronic inflammation of the bladder wall that is not caused by bacterial infection and is not responsive to conventional antibiotic therapy; also called painful bladder syndrome

10

nephrotic syndrome

loss of large amounts of plasma protein, usually albumin, through urine due to an increased permeability of the glomerular membrane

11

neurogenic bladder

impairment of bladder control due to brain or nerve conduction

12

polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

inherited disease in which sacs of fluid called cysts develop in the kidney

13

urgency

sensation of the need to void immediately

14

vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)

disorder caused by the failure of urine to pass through the ureters to the bladder, usually due to impairment of the valve between the ureter and bladder or obstruction the ureter

15

wilms tumor

rapidly developing malignant neoplasm of the kidney that usually occurs in children

16

dialysis

mechanical filtering process used to clease the blood of toxic substances, such as nitrogenous wastes, when kidneys fail to function properly

17

hemodialysis

type of dialysis in which an artificial kidney machine receives waste-filled blood, filters the blood, and returns the dialyzed (clean) blood to the patient's bloodstream

18

peritoneal

type of dialysis in which toxic substances are removed from the body by using the peritoneal membrane as the filter by perfusing (flushing) the peritoneal cavity with a warm, sterile chemical solution.

19

kidney transplant

replacement of a disease kidney with one that is supplied by a compatible donor (usually a family member or a cadaver who has donated the kidney prior to death)

20

nephropexy

fixation of a floating or mobile kidney

21

nephrostomy

the passage of a tube through the skin and into the renal pelvis to drain urine to a collecting receptacle outside the body when the ureters are unable to do so

22

stent placement

insertion of a mesh tube into a natural passage conduit in the body to prevent, or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction

23

ureteral

insertion of a thin narrow tube into the ureter to prevent or treat obstruction of urine flow from the kidney

24

urethrotomy

incision of a urethral stricture

25

electromyography (EMG)

measure the contraction of muscles that control urination using electrodes placed in the rectum and urethra

26

cystoscopy (cysto)

examination of the urinary bladder for evidence of pathology, obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growth, and removal of polyps using a specialized endoscope

27

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

determines the amount of nitrogen in blood that comes from urea, a waste product of a protein metabolism

28

culture and sensitivity (C&S)

determines the causative organism of an infection and identifies how the organism responds to various antibiotics

29

urinalysis (UA)

urine screening test that includes physical observation, chemical tests, and microscopic

30

ultrasonography

high-frequency waves (ultrasound) are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo