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Flashcards in Ch 13-15 Deck (86)
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1

John Huss

Began at revival in Bohemia modern Czech republic. Follower of Wycliffe, considered Bible the only two authority for Christians, not priests but only God can forgive sin and salvation comes only through Christ were his beliefs. Preached at Bethlehem chapel in Prague. And 1415 church leaders some test to the Council of Constance in Switzerland to defend his beliefs. He was given a safe conduct guarantee that the council condemned him to death and burned him at the state. He said, "Lord into Thy hand I commend my spirit."

2

Johann Gutenberg

Invented the movable type printing press in about 1440 in Mainz, Germany. He wanted to print the Bible so many people could read about gods gift. And 1456 he produced the first printed edition of the Bible. It is called the Gutenberg Bible in his honor. The printing press is said to be the most important invention in the history of the world.

3

Desiderius Erasmus

The most famous figure of the Northern Renaissance, a scholar from the Netherlands. He lived in study dollar Europe in Germany France England Italy and Switzerland. And 1516 he published the first printed edition of the new testament in the original Greek. He helped other scholars would use his Greek text to translate the Scriptures into languages people could read. He died in 1536.

4

Martin Luther

Graduated from the University of Erfurt in 1505, in the summer was struck down by lightning and he promised to become a monk.Then he became a professor. Realized a man is saved by faith and not works. He became saved. He wrote a list of statements called the 95 theses that he nailed to the church door at Wittenberg to challenge the Catholic church on their practices. This put into motion a huge change in history and led to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in 1517.

5

Tetzel

In 1517, a fryer who traveled to Germany selling indulgences. Indulgences were used to find church buildings and the promise was given to people that are buying indulgences would release people from all punishment for their sins and friends in purgatory would go right to heaven.

6

Pope Leo X

Permitted the sale of indulgences in Germany to reimburse Albert Brandon of Brandenburg who purchased the leading church office in Germany. Simony is this practice of purchasing a church office. He received a copy of loose Luthers cc and charged him with heresy and contempt. And 1518, he summoned Luther to Rome to answer the charges.

7

Frederick the Wise

The prince of Luthers part of Germany. He decided that Luther should receive a hearing on German soil with the Diet- churches officials in the Holy Roman Empire. He arranged a fake kidnapping of Martyn Luther and had him protected in Wartburg castle.

8

Charles V

Emperor who ruled from 1519 to 1556. He was from the powerful Habsburg family. He promised to give live there a fair hearing and guaranteed his safety to and from Worms. After the edict of farms he declared loser a heretic and no one was to give Luther any food or drink. He was taken prisoner and turned over to the emperor so both he and his books could be destroyed. With there was excommunicated by the Roman church and outlawed by the Holy Roman Empire.

9

Ulrich Zwingli

In 1518 attacked the sale of indulgences. Actually taught the Bible during mass which was not a normal practice. He attacked one Roman doctrine after another when he found discrepancies between them and the Bible. He sparked the Reformation in Switzerland.

10

John Calvin

French protestant forced to leave his native land and took refuge in Basle Switzerland where he studied the Bible and works of church fathers. He wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion which was a very important and influential book in the Protestant Reformation. Became an important leader in the reformation and people who followed him were called Calvinists

11

Petrobrusians and Waldensians

Named for Peter of bruit and Peter Waldo. They believed in the sole authority of the Bible for Christians.
The Weldons ENZ traveled as Pedalers selling goods and then would offer a rare gem and when a person asked about it they would tell them about the gospel.

12

Lollards

Followers of Wycliffe

13

Heretic

Any baptized members of the Roman church who disagreed with any official church opinion

14

Hussites

Followers of John Huss

15

Gutenberg Bible

The first printed addition of the Bible in 1456. (The Vulgate)

16

Simony

The practice of purchasing church offices

17

Ninety-Five Theses

A list of statements written by John Luther that challenged the Roman Catholic Church and its practices.

18

Popular education

The education of all people rather than just a privileged few. This is what Martin Luther worked on after he left Wartburg in April of 1522. The emphasis on popular education distinguishes the modern age from all previous eras, and the reformation made the difference.

19

University of Wittenberg

Re-organized in the 1530s and became the first protestant university. Bible studies replaced the early study of scholastic philosophy and theology.

20

Anabaptists

A group of Protestants, spiritual descendants of groups who during the middle ages had been called by that name. It means rebaptizer. They believed only believers should be baptized.

21

The Inquisition

1400-1600s The purpose was to investigate matters of alleged heresy and to meet out punishment for convicted heretics. The inquisitor would arrive to investigate someone and if they were found to be a heretic they were locked up and promised a trial. The inquisitor was the judge prosecutor and jury. The accused had no lawyer. Many times people were put into prison or condemned to death by burning at the stake, being beaten, or by drowning.

22

Council of Constance

1415 in Switzerland Huss testified about his Christian beliefs and was burned at the stake

23

Italian Renaissance

1300 to 1600 A rebirth of learning and study of the humanities like poetry, philosophy, history, grammar and rhetoric

24

Northern Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance spread into northern parts of Europe influence in countries like Germany, France, the Netherlands, and England.

25

Edict of Worms

May 26, 1521, furious Emperor Charles V declared Luther a heretic. Luther was taken prisoner and turned over to the emperor so he and his books could be destroyed

26

1440

Johan Gutenberg invented the movable type printing press in Mainz, Germany

27

1456

Gutenberg produced the first printed edition of the Bible the Vulgate

28

1517

Martyn Luther began the Protestant Reformation by nailing the 95 theses to the church door at Wittenberg

29

John Wycliffe

He challenged Roman church in 14th century England. He was a professor at oxford university and believed the church was distorting Christianity. He believed ordinary people should read the Bible for themselves and had the entire Bible translated into English for the first time
Pope wanted him arrested, and a revival broke out and people supported him, authorities backed away, his books were banned, he died and 1384, anyone who read the Bible in English after 1414 could have everything including their life taken away, in 1415 his writings were burned, and 1428 the pope had his remains dug up and burned as well

30

Feudalism in Germany

Peasants worked for lords with little reward