Ch. 17-Female Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 17-Female Reproductive System Deck (159):
1

abort/o

to miscarry

2

cervic/o

cervix, neck

3

colt/o

a coming together

4

colp/o

vagina

5

culd/o

cul-de-sac

6

cyst/o

bladder

7

fibr/o

fibrous tissue

8

gynec/o

female

9

hyster/o

womb, uterus

10

mamm/o

breast

11

mast/o

breast

12

men/o

month, menses, menstruation

13

metr/o

womb, uterus

14

my/o

muscle

15

o/o

ovum, egg

16

oophor/o

ovary

17

pareun/o

lying beside, sexual intercourse

18

rect/o

rectum

19

salping/o

fallopian tube

20

uter/o

uterus

21

vagin/o

vagina

22

venere/o

sexual intercourse

23

vers/o

turning

24

cesarean section

delivery of fetus by means of an incision through the abdominal cavity and then into the uterus. fetal distress=most common cause for emergency c-section

25

culdocentesis

surgical puncture of the cul-de-sac for removal of fluid
culd/o cul-de-sac
-centesis surgical puncture

26

dysmenorrhea

difficult or painful monthly flow (menstruation)
dys- difficult, painful
men/o month, menses, menstruation
-rrhea flow

27

eclampsia

complication of severe preeclampsia that involves seizures, aka toxemia or pregnancy-induced hypertension
ec- out
lamp(s) to shine
-ia condition

28

ectopic pregnancy

pregnancy that occurs when fertilized egg implants in various sites, most commonly the fallopian tube, aka tubal pregnancy
life threatening to mother and almost always fatal for fetus

29

endometriosis

pathological condition where endometrial tissue has been displaced in the abdominal or pelvic cavity, causes bleeding for nation of scars and adhesions which causes daily or monthly cyclic pain
endo- within
metr/i uterus
-osis condition

30

fibroma

fibrous tissue tumor, aka fibroid tumor, most common benign tumor in women
fibr/o fibrous tissue
-oma tumor

31

hysterectomy

surgical excision of the uterus
hyster/o womb, uterus
-ectomy surgical excision

32

hysterotomy

incision into the uterus, commonly combined with laparotomy during a c-section
hyster/o womb, uterus
-tomy incision

33

intrauterine

pertaining to within the uterus
intra- within
uter/o uterus
-ine pertaining to

34

lumpectomy

surgical removal of a tumor from the breast, removing the tumor and some surrounding tissue but no lymph nodes
lump/o lump
-ectomy surgical excision

35

mammoplasty

surgical repair of the breast
mamm/o breast
-plasty surgical repair

36

mastectomy

surgical excision of the breast, modified radical or radical.
modified radical- all of breast tissue and underarm lymph nodes are removed
radical- breast tissue, lymph nodes, and chest muscles removed
mast/o breast
-ectomy surgical excision

37

pelvic inflammatory disease

infection of the upper genital area; can affect the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes
most common and serious complication of STIs and can lead to infertility and pelvic pain

38

placenta previa

placenta is improperly implanted in lower uterus, fetus receives less oxygen and the mother has increased risk of hemorrhage
I. Low-lying placenta-implanted in lower segment but does not reach internal os (opening of uterus)
II. Marginal placenta previa- edge of placenta is at the margin of internal os
III. Partial placenta previa- placenta partially covers internal os
IV. Total placenta previa- placenta completely covers internal os

39

preeclampsia

serious complication of pregnancy characterized by increasing hypertension, proteinuria (abnormal concentration of urinary protein), and edema, aka toxemia or pregnancy-induced hypertension
pre- before
ec- out
lamp(s) to shine
-ia condition

40

salpingectomy

surgical excision of a fallopian tube
salping/o fallopian tube
-ectomy surgical excision

41

Female reproductive system consists of:

two ovaries, two fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, and breasts

42

Vital function of female reproductive system:

perpetuate species through sexual or germ cell reproduction

43

uterus

provides place for nourishment and development of fetus during pregnancy; contracts rhythmically and powerfully to help birth fetus. muscular, hollow, pear shaped organ

44

fallopian tubes

ducts to convey ovum from ovary to uterus and to convey spermatozoa from uterus to each ovary
aka uterine tubes or oviducts

45

ovaries

produce ova and hormones

46

vagina

female organ of copulation, serves as passage for menstruation and passage for fetus birth

47

vulva

external female genitalia, has 5 parts: mons pubis, labia major, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris

48

mons pubis

pad of fatty tissue above pubis symphisis

49

labia majora

two folds of adipose tissue on either side of vagina

50

labia minora

two smaller folds within labia majora that enclose the vestibule

51

vestibule

serves as entrance to urethra, vagina, and two excretory ducts of Bartholin glands on either side of vaginal opening that secrete mucus

52

clitoris

erectile tissue homologous to penis, produces pleasurable sensations

53

breasts

following childbirth, mammary glands produce milk
have 15-20 glandular tissue lobes

54

anteflexion

normal uterus position, cervix points toward lower and of sacrum

55

uterine body

corpus, larger upper portion of uterus

56

fundus

rounded portion of the uterine body above fallopian tube openings

57

isthmus

constricted central area where body of uterus ends

58

cervix

lowermost cylindrical portion of uterus that extends from isthmus to vagina

59

Three layers of uterine wall

perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium (outer to inner)

60

Three abnormal positions of the uterus

retroversion, retroflexion, anteversion

61

retroversion

backward tilting

62

retroflexion

backward bending of uterus

63

anteversion

forward tilting

64

Three layers of fallopian tube wall

serosa, muscular, mucosa

65

fertilization

23 male chromosomes combine with 23 female chromosomes, occurs within 24 hrs after ovulation in fallopian tube

66

zygote

single sperm penetrates ovum and this is the result

67

ovulation

ovum leaves the ovary and enters the fallopian tube where it can then be fertilized

68

morula

mass of cells formed when the zygote begins to divide, right after sex and biological traits are determined

69

blastocyst

hollow ball of cells, developing embryo between week 2 and 8 reaches uterus and forms a structure with a yolk sac and amniotic cavity

70

yolk sac

site of formation of first RBCs and cells that will become ovum and sperm

71

When does sex differentiation occur?

at 16 weeks, external genitals of fetus are recognizable

72

What ligament attaches ovary to side of pelvis?

suspensory ligaments

73

Two distinct areas of the ovary

cortex and medulla

74

What gland controls function of ovaries?

anterior lobe of pituitary gland

75

Pituitary gland releases which two hormones?

follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH): development of ovarian follicles
luteinizing hormone(LH): stimulates development of corpus luteum (small yellow mass of cells that develops in ruptured ovarian follicle)

76

Two major functions of ovaries

production of ova, and production of hormones

77

production of ova in ovaries

graafian follicle ruptures on ovarian cortex, ovum discharges into pelvic cavity and enters fallopian tube. 400+ ova may be produced during reproductive years

78

production of hormones in ovaries

produces estrogen (female sex hormone secreted by ovarian follicles) and progesterone (steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum, important in maintaining pregnancy)

79

estrogen and progesterone are essential in:

growth and development, maintaining secondary sex organs, preparing uterus, developing mammary glands

80

hymen

fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the external opening of the vagina

81

perineum

between the vulva and the anus, may be cut (episiotomy) during childbirth to prevent tearing and help in delivery

82

areola

dark pigmented area around the nipple, changes to dark brown or reddish during pregnancy

83

lactiferous glands

20-24 glands in areola that convey milk to suckling infant after pregnancy

84

prolactin

hormone that stimulates mammary glands to produce milk after childbirth, insulin and glucocorticoids also help

85

colostrum

first milk, usually thin and yellowish and consist mainly of serum and WBC

86

oxytocin

responds to stimulation of suckling and stimulates release of milk and uterus to contract back to normal

87

breastfeeding

providing milk to a baby from mothers breast; it's sterile, easily digested, nonallergenic, and transmits maternal antibodies

88

exclusive breastfeeding should be done for:

1 year, but supports optimal growth and development for first 6 months

89

exclusive breastfeeding provides protection against:

diarrhea and respiratory tract infection

90

menstrual cycle

periodic recurrent series of changes in the uterus, ovaries, vagina, and breasts, and occurs at the age of puberty

91

how often is the menstrual cycle?

every 21-40 days

92

three phases of the menstrual cycle

follicular phase, ovulation phase, luteal phase

93

follicular phase

menstruation marks first day, characterized by discharge of bloody fluid from uterus and shedding endometrium. lasts from 1-5 days

94

ovulatory phase

begins about 5th day and ends at egg release. egg release happens 36 hours after LH surge. egg disintegrates if not fertilized in 12-48 hours, this occurs 14 days before menstruation

95

luteal phase

follows ovulation and lasts 14 days. corpus luteum secretes progesterone that causes body temp increase which can be used to estimate if ovulation occurred. corpus luteum disintegrates after 14 days if egg is not fertilized

96

premenstrual or ischemic time period

coiled uterine arteries become constricted, endometrium begins to shrink, corpus luteum decreases in activity.
lasts 2 days and ends with menstruation

97

obstetrics

branch of medicine that pertains to care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum (puerperium-after birth)

98

normal term of pregnancy

40 weeks, 9 1/3 calendar months

99

gestation period

three segments of three months each-trimesters

100

3 stages of human development

pre embryonic stage, embryonic stage, and fetal stage

101

preembryonic stage

first 14 days after ovum is fertilized

102

embryonic stage

begins in third week after fertilization

103

fetal stage

begins in the ninth week

104

5 weeks into pregnancy

embryo has c-shaped body and rudimentary tail

105

7 weeks into pregnancy

embryo is rounded and nearly erect-eyelids begin forming

106

9 weeks into pregnancy

every organ system and external structure is present, embryo is now called a fetus

107

14 weeks into pregnancy

blood vessels visible through skin, more muscles and skeleton develop

108

20 weeks into pregnancy

skin is less transparent due to subcutaneous deposits of brown fat-fingernails and toenails developed, and hair

109

4 stages of pregnancy

prenatal stage, labor, parturition and puerperium

110

prenatal stage

time between conception and onset of labor

111

labor

forceful contractions move fetus down birth canal and expel it from uterus during childbirth. signs and symptoms can occur from hours to weeks before actual labor

112

parturition

act of giving birth

113

puerperium

postpartum, expulsion of placenta and 6 weeks following birth where the reproductive organs return to prepregnant condition

114

Braxton Hicks contractions

irregular contracts that begin second trimester and intensify as full term approaches

115

increased vaginal discharge

normally clear and nonirritating discharge caused by fetal pressure

116

lightening

descent of baby into pelvis, can occur 2-3 weeks before first stage of labor

117

bloody show

thick mucus mixed with blood caused by cervix dilating and small capillaries being torn

118

weight loss in labor

1-3 pounds shortly before labor as hormone changes cause excretion of water

119

true labor

rhythmic contractions that develop a regular pattern and are more frequent, more intense, and last longer

120

three stages of labor

first stage- begins with onset of true labor and lasts until cervix is fully dilated to 10 cm (stage of dilation)
second stage- after cervix is dilated until delivery of baby (stage of expulsion)
third stage- delivery of placenta

121

placenta

anchors fetus to uterus and provides nourishment and oxygen, aka afterbirth when expelled and has a fetal portion and maternal portion. weighs up to 1 pound

122

fetal portion of placenta

umbilical vein and arteries intertwine to form umbilical cord

123

maternal portion of placenta

red beefy material that forms from the uterus

124

schultze mechanism

placenta is expelled with fetal surface first

125

duncan mechanism

placenta is expelled with maternal surface first

126

vernix caseosa

protective cheesy substance that covers fetus during intrauterine life and is often on the fetus when it is delivered

127

lanugo

fine downy hair that covers the baby's body

128

apgar score

assessment of newborn taken at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. scored on 0-2 scale
a-appearance (color)
p-pulse
g-grimace (reflex)
a-activity (muscle tone)
r-respiration

129

amniocentesis

surgical puncture of the amniotic sac to get a sample of amniotic fluid for examination. determines chromosomal abnormalities

130

birth control pills

contain mixtures of estrogen and progestin that are nearly 100% effective when used correctly. estrogen inhibits ovulation, progestin inhibits pituitary secretion of LH. also causes changes in cervical mucus that makes it unfavorable to penetration

131

birth control patch

continuously delivers two synthetic hormones, progestin and estrogen. prevents ovulation and thickens cervical mucus, 95% effective

132

injectable birth control

given four times a year and contains synthetic drug similar to progesterone. stops ovulation and thickens cervical mucus. prevents pregnancy over 99% of the time

133

intrauterine device

small device placed within the uterus to prevent pregnancy, usually made of soft, flexible plastic and is 99.2%-99.9% effective (ParaGard and Mirena). ParaGard uses copper around the plastic, and Mirena releases progesterone over time and can be left in for 5 years. don't protect against STIs

134

female hormones-estrogens

can be used for variety of conditions, and palliative therapy for breast cancer, and as hormone therapy to treatment menopause symptoms

135

female hormones-progestins

can prevent uterine bleeding and used in cases of infertility and treating miscarriage

136

blood grouping lab test

determines blood type

137

breast examination

visual inspection and manual examination of breast for changes in contour, symmetry, dimpling, nipple retraction, and presence of lumps

138

chorionic villus samping

CVS
determines chromosomal abnormalities and biochemical disorders such as down syndrome, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis

139

colposcopy

visual examination of vagina and cervis

140

complete blood count

checks for anemia, infection, or cell abnormalities

141

cordocentesis

examines fetal bood to detect abnormalities, aka fetal blood sampling

142

culdoscopy

direct visual examination of viscera of female pelvis through a culdoscope to diagnose ectopic pregnancy and check for masses

143

estrogen lab test

test on urine or blood serum to determine leven of estrone, estradiol, and estriol

144

group B streptococcus screening

screening for vaginal strep B, performed between the 35th-37th week of pregnancy

145

hematocrit

checks for anemia during pregnancy

146

hemoglobin

checks for anemia during pregnancy

147

hepatitis B screen

identify carries of hepatitis

148

human chorionic gonadotropin

hCG
determines presence of hCG, which is secreted by the placenta, positive result usually indicates pregnancy

149

human immunodeficiency virus screen

HIV
identifies HIV infection

150

hysterosalpingography

X-ray of uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of radiopaque substance to evaluate size and structure of fallopian tubes

151

laparoscopy

visual examination of abdominal cavity via laparoscope

152

mammography

specific type of imaging that uses low does X-ray system to examine breast
screening- used to detect breast cancer or other changes
diagnostic- ordered when a screening mammogram shows symptoms

153

maternal blood glucose

screen for gestational diabetes

154

nonstress test

identifies fetal compromise in conditions with poor placenta function

155

papanicolaou (Pap) smear

screening technique to aid in detection of cervical cancer

156

rubella titer

determines immunity to rubella (german measles)

157

TORCH panel

screen for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex

158

toxoplasmosis screen

determines toxoplasmosis infection

159

ultrasound

uses during pregnancy include confirming pregnancy, confirming heartbeat, determining sex, and observing movements