Ch. 9-Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 9-Cardiovascular System Deck (148):
0

What does the cardiovascular system do?

Circulates blood by action of the heart, provides cells with oxygen and nutritive elements and removes waste and carbon dioxide

1

How many times does the heart beat each day?

100,000; 8,000 liters of blood

2

Where does blood flow?

Through the heart to the lungs, then back to the heart and out of the body

3

Heart

Center of cardiovascular system where vessels originate and return, weighs 300g, circulates blood through lungs and body

4

Pulmonary circulation

Lung circulation

5

Systemic circulation

Circulation through the rest of the body

6

3 Layers if the Heart

Endocardium, myocardium, pericardium

7

Endocardium

Inner lining of the heart

8

Myocardium

Muscular middle layer of heart

9

Pericardium

Outer membranous sac surrounding the heart

10

Arteries

Branching systems of vessels that transport blood from the right and left ventricles to all body parts
They always have a pulse

11

Veins

Transport blood from tissues back to the heart

12

Capillaries

Microscopic blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules
-passage of life sustaining fluids containing oxygen and nutrients

13

Blood

Consists of formed elements (erythrocytes, thrombocytes, leukocytes) and plasma
-delivers necessary substances to cells and transports waste

14

Septum

Divides heart into sections called the right and left heart

15

Atria

Two upper chambers, separated by interatrial septum, designated as right or left depending on which side of the septum they are on. They receive blood from the body

16

Ventricles

Two lower chambers, separated by interventricular septum, designated as right or left depending on which side of the septum they are on. Pump blood out to body

17

Right atrium

RA
Receives blood from body. Superior and inferior vena cava bring deoxygenated blood here, fills atrium, then passes through tricuspid valve to the right ventricle

18

Right ventricle

RV
Receives blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve, contracts to force blood through pulmonary valve into left and right pulmonary arteries, which then carry it to the lungs where it is oxygenated

19

Pulmonary arteries

Only artery that carries oxygen-deficient blood

20

Left atrium

LA
Receives blood from left and right pulmonary veins from lungs, fills atrium and creates pressure that forces oxygenated blood through the mitral (bicuspid) valve and into left ventricle

21

Left ventricle

LV
Receives blood from left atrium through mitral valve, contracts when filled, closing the mitral valve and opening the aortic valve. The blood is pumped from the aorta all over the body through arteries and capillaries

22

Tricuspid valve

Right atrioventricular valve
Guards opening between right atrium and right ventricle

23

Pulmonary valve

Semilunar valve
Guards opening between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

24

Mitral valve

Bicuspid valve
Left atrioventricular valve
Between left atrium and left ventricle

25

Aortic valve

Semilunar valve
Between left ventricle and aorta

26

Coronary arteries

Part of hearts own vascular system that delivers oxygen rich blood to the heart

27

Cardiac veins

Part of hearts own vascular system that collects oxygen poor blood and returns it to the right atrium

28

Heartbeat

Controlled by autonomic nervous system and generated by specialized neuromuscular tissue that causes cardiac muscle to contract

29

3 Things in Heart's Specialized Neuromuscular Tissue

Sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, and atrioventricular bundle

30

Sinoatrial node

SA node
Located in right atrium below superior vena cava, pacemaker of the heart, network of Purkinje fibers that discharge electrical impulses

31

Purkinje fibers

Atypical muscle fibers

32

Atrioventricular node

AV node
Beneath endocardium of right atrium and transmits electrical impulses to the bundle of His

33

Atrioventricular bundle

bundle of His
Collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction that transmits impulses from the AV node to Purkinje fibers, which distribute it to ventricular muscle

34

Average adult heartbeat?

60-90 bpm

35

What affects the rate of heartbeat?

Emotion, smoking, disease, body size, age, stress, environment, and many others

36

Electrocardiogram

ECG, EKG
Records heart's electrical activity

37

3 Commonly Used Sites for Taking Pulse

Radial artery, brachial artery, carotid artery

38

Auscultation

Taking pulse with stethoscope and counting for one minute

39

Apical pulse

Taking pulse right over the heart as with a stethoscope

40

Temporal artery

Temple area of head, used to control bleeding from the head and to monitor circulation

41

Carotid artery

Neck, easiest to access in an emergency

42

Brachial artery

Antecubical space of elbow, common for blood pressure

43

Radial artery

Thumb side of wrist, most common for pulse

44

Femoral artery

Groin area, used to monitor circulation

45

Popliteal artery

Behind the knee, used to monitor circulation

46

Dorsalis pedis artery

On dorsal surface of foot (top), used to assess for peripheral artery disease (PAD)

47

Blood pressure

BP
Pressure exerted by blood on artery walls, consists of systolic and diastolic number and measured by sphygmomanometer
Needs to be below (120/80)

48

Systolic number

Numerator and higher number, pressure while heart contracts

49

Diastolic number

Denominator and lower number, pressure while heart relaxes between beats

50

Pulse pressure

Difference between systolic and diastolic readings and indicates tone of arterial walls. Should not be over 50 or under 30

51

Arteriosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries

52

Atherosclerosis

Fatty plaques in arterial walls

53

Cardiovascular disease can accelerate due to

Reduced blood flow
Elevated blood lipids
Detective endothelial repair

54

Heart failure

One of the most common types of cardiovascular disease in older adults

55

Congestive heart failure

CHF
Left sided failure
Symptoms are pulmonary edema, dyspnea, shortness of breath

56

Right ventricular heart failure

Right sided failure
Usually occurs as a result of CHF
Symptoms are liver enlargement, distention of neck veins, edema in ankles

57

Stent

Steel cage like object is placed over a balloon catheter and inserted into the blockage, expanded, and removed so that the stent stays in place

58

Digitalis drugs

Strengthen heart muscle, increase force of systolic contraction, slow heart rate, and decrease conduction through the atrioventricular node

59

Antiarrhythmic agents

Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias(irregular heartbeats)

60

Vasopressors

Cause contraction of muscles associated with capillaries and arteries, narrowing the space through which blood circulates and raising blood pressure

61

Vasodilators

Cause relaxation of blood vessels and lowers blood pressure

62

antihypertensive agents

Used in treatment of hypertension

63

Antihyperlipidemic agents

Lower abnormally high levels of fatty substances when other treatments fail

64

Antiplatelet drugs

Reduce occurrence of and death from events such as heart attacks and strokes. Aspirin is main drug and is recommended by AHA for people with CV diseases because it prevents clots

65

Anticoagulants

Prevents blood clots
"Blood thinners"

66

Thrombolytic agents

Dissolve an existing clot when given within 6 hours of occurrence
Reduces chance of death by 50%

67

Angiography

X-ray recording of a blood vessel after injection of a radiopaque substance

68

Cardiac catheterization

CC
Medical procedure used to diagnose heart disorders

69

Cardiac enzymes

Blood tests performed to determine cardiac damage in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

70

Cardiac muscle troponins

Blood tests performed to determine heart muscle injury (microinfarction) not detected by cardiac enzyme tests

71

Cholesterol

chol
Blood test to determine level of cholesterol in serum
Greater than 200 mg/dL is bad

72

Echocardiography

ECHO
Used to analyze size, shape, and movement of structures in the heart

73

Holter monitor

Portable medical device attached to the patient that records a continuous EKG for 24 hours

74

Intracardiac electrophysiology study

EPS
Invasive cardiac procedure that involves placement of catheter-guided electrodes inside the heart to evaluate and map electrical conduction of arrhythmias

75

Lactic dehydrogenase

LD or LDH
Intracellular enzyme that can be detected when it leaks into the bloodstream and ia a good indicator of acute myocardial infarction

76

Lipid profile

Series of blood tears including chol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides

77

Magnetic resonance imaging

MRI
Uses a magnet that sets nuclei of atoms in heart cells vibrating, they emit signals that are converted by a computer into 3-D images

78

Stress test

Screening test evaluating cardiovascular fitness, EKG is monitored while patient is subjected to exercise, helps doctors assess blood flow

79

Thallium-201 stress test

X-ray study that follows path of radioactive thallium carried by the blood into the heart muscle

80

Triglycerides

Blood test to determine level of triglycerides in the serum

81

Ultrafast CT scan

Can take multiple images of the heart within a single heartbeat

82

Ultrasonography

Test used to visualize an organ or tissue by using high frequency sound waves

83

Aneurysm

Abnormal widening of ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the artery wall

84

Angioplasty

Surgical repair of a blood vessel or nonsurgical technique for treating diseased arteries by temporarily inflating a tiny balloon inside an artery
angi/o vessel
-plasty surgical repair

85

Arrhythmia

Irregularity or loss of rhythm of heartbeat, also called dysrhythmia
a- lack of
rrhythm rhythm
-ia condition

86

Automated external defibrillator

Portable automatic device used to restore normal heart rhythm to patients in cardiac arrest; automatically tells rescuer when to administer shock

87

Cardiomyopathy

Disease of the heart muscle that leads to deterioration of the muscle and pumping ability
cardi/o heart
my/o muscle
-pathy disease

88

Defibrillator

Medical device used to restore normal heart rhythm by delivering electric shock

89

Diastole

Relaxation phase of the heart cycle during which the heart muscle relaxers and heart chambers fill with blood

90

Dysrhythmia

Abnormality of the rhythm or rate of heartbeat, can be divided into bradycardias(slow) or tachycardias(fast)
dys- difficult
rhythm rhythm
-ia condition

91

Fibrillation

Quivering or spontaneous contraction of individual muscle fibers, an abnormal bioelectric potential occurring in neuropathies and myopathies
fibrillat fibrils(small fibers)
-ion process

92

Infarction

Process of developing an infarct, which is death of tissue from obstructed blood flow
infarct infarct(necrosis of an area)
-ion process

93

Lipoprotein

Lipid and protein molecules bound together classified as VLDL, LDL, and HDL

94

Murmur

Abnormal sound ranging from soft and blowing to loud and booming heard on auscultation of heart and adjacent large vessels

95

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTCA
Use of a balloon catheter to compress plaques against an artery wall

96

Pericardiocentesis

Surgical procedure to remove fluid from the pericardial sac for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes
peri- around
cardi/o heart
-centesis surgical puncture

97

Pericarditis

Inflammation of the pericardium
peri- around
cardi/o heart
-itis inflammation

98

Phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein
phleb/o vein
-itis inflammation

99

Tachycardia

Rapid heartbeat over 100 bpm
tachy- rapid
cardi/o heart
-ia condition

100

Thrombosis

A blood clot within the vascular system
thromb/o clot of blood
-osis condition

101

Triglyceride

Pertaining to an organic compound consisting of 3 molecules of fatty acids
tri- three
glyc sweet, sugar
-er relating to
-ide having a particular quality

102

angi/o

Vessel

103

angin/o

To choke

104

arteri/o

Artery

105

ather/o

Fatty substance

106

atri/o

Atrium

107

auscultat/o

To listen to

108

cardi/o

Heart

109

chol/e

Bile

110

circulat/o

Circular

111

claudicat/o

To limp

112

corpor/o

Body

113

cyan/o

Dark blue

114

dilatat/o

To widen

115

dynam/o

Power

116

ech/o

Reflected sound

117

electr/o

Electricity

118

embol/o

A throwing in

119

glyc/o

Sweet, sugar

120

hem/o

Blood

121

infarct/o

Infarct (necrosis of an area)

122

isch/o

To hold back

123

lipid/o

Fat

124

lun/o

Moon

125

man/o

Thin

126

mitr/o

Mitral valve

127

my/o

Muscle

128

occlus/o

To close up

129

oxy

Sour, sharp, acid

130

palpit/o

Throbbing

131

pector/o

Chest

132

phleb/o

Vein

133

pulmon/o

Lung

134

rrhythm/o

Rhythm

135

scler/o

Hardening

136

sept/o

Partition

137

sin/o

Curve

138

sphygm/o

Pulse

139

sten/o

Narrowing

140

steth/o

Chest

141

thromb/o

Clot of blood

142

valvul/o

Valve

143

vas/o

Vessel

144

vascul/o

Small vessel

145

ven/o

Vein

146

ventricul/o

Ventricle

147

vers/o

Turning