Ch. 14-Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14-Nervous System Deck (138):
0

cephal/o

Head

1

cerebell/o

Little brain

2

cerebr/o

Cerebrum

3

chrom/o

Color

4

cran/i

Skull

5

crani/o

Skull

6

cyt/o

Cell

7

dendr/o

Tree

8

disk/o

A disk

9

dur/o

Dura, hard

10

electr/o

Electricity

11

encephal/o

Brain

12

esthesi/o

Feeling

13

fibr/o

Fiber

14

gli/o

Glue

15

hypn/o

Sleep

16

lamin/o

Thin plate

17

later/o

Side

18

lob/o

Lobe

19

mening/i

Membrane, meninges

20

mening/o

Membrane, meninges

21

ment/o

Mind

22

my/o

Muscle

23

myel/o

Bone marrow, spinal cord

24

narc/o

Numbness, sleep, stupor

25

neur/o

Nerve

26

pallid/o

Globus pallidus

27

papill/o

Papilla

28

phe/o

Dusky

29

poli/o

Grey

30

somn/o

Sleep

31

spin/o

A thorn, spine

32

spondyl/o

Vertebra

33

vag/o

Vagus, wandering

34

ventricul/o

Ventricle

35

Two divisions of nervous system

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

36

Central nervous system

Includes brain and spinal cord and is enclosed by bones of the skull and spinal cord
Receives impulses, processes them, and responds with action

37

Peripheral nervous system

Nerves and neural tissues branching throughout the body from 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Links CNS with other parts of body

38

Neurons

Nerve cells, functional units of nervous system that act as specialized conductors of impulses, allow body to interact with environment

39

Neuroglia

Act as supporting tissue to neurons

40

Nerve fibers and tracts

Conduct impulses from one location to another

41

Brain

Governs sensory perception, emotions, consciousness, memory, and voluntary movements

42

Spinal cord

Conducts sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses to body parts, and serves as reflex center for impulses entering and leaving spinal cord

43

Cranial nerves

Provide sensory input and motor control or combo of these
12 pairs

44

Spinal nerves

Carry impulses to spinal cord and to muscles, organs, and glands
31 pairs

45

Autonomic nervous system

Controls involuntary functions and stimulates adrenal gland to release epinephrine, causes adrenaline rush
Sympathetic(fight or flight) and parasympathetic division(rest and digest)

46

3 types of neurons

Motor, sensory, and interneurons

47

Motor neurons

Cause muscle movement and gland secretion, thereby controlling most of body's functions
Axon and dendrites extending away in several directions, and the axon can be as long as several feet

48

Axon

Long and covered with myelin sheath, which increases transmission speed of nerve fiber, and can be several feet long

49

Dendrites

Resemble tree branches and are short and unsheathed, transmit impulses to cell body
Receive impulses from another axon

50

Sensory neurons

Don't really have true dendrites, but have a peripheral that resembles an axon and transmits impulses to CNS

51

Afferent nerves

Sensory neurons, they carry impulses from sensory receptors into the CNS

52

Interneurons

Central or associative neurons
Located entirely in CNS
Mediate impulses between sensory and motor neurons

53

Nerve fibers

In PNS they have myelin sheath and outer layer of neurolemma made of Schwann cells
In CNS they don't have Schwann cells
Damage to CNS fibers are permanent, but damage to PNS fibers is reversible

54

Nerves

Collection of nerve fibers outside CNS
Afferent (sensory, into) and efferent (motor, exit)

55

Efferent nerves

Motor nerves that conduct away from CNS to muscles, organs, and glands

56

Nerve tracts

Groups of fibers in CNS that have same origin, function, and termination
-Spinal cord has afferent sensory tracts (ascending) and efferent motor tracts (descending)
-brain has numerous tracts, largest being corpus callosum

57

Sensory receptors

Specialized to specific types of stimulation, and react by initiating s chemic change or impulse

58

All or none principle

No nerve impulse occurs until the stimulus reaches a set minimum strength (threshold), then a maximum impulse is produced

59

How is a nerve impulse transmitted?

Via synapse at end of an axon across a synaptic cleft to another neurons dendrites
Neurotransmitters take impulse across cleft

60

Grey matter

Unsheathed cell bodies and true dendrites, part of brain and spinal cord

61

White matter

Myelinated nerve fibers, part of brain and spinal cord

62

CNS in spinal cord

H-shaped core of gray cell bodies surrounded by tracts of fibers connected to the brain

63

CNS in the brain

Surface (cortex) is grey matter, most of internal structure is white matter

64

Cerebrum

Evaluates and controls all sensory and motor activity, emotions, consciousness, memory, and voluntary movements

65

Cerebellum

Integrates sensory perception and motor output, and participates in attention and processing of language, music, and other sensory stimuli
Located at back of skull

66

Diencephalon

Second portion of the brain and refers to thalamus and hypothalamus

67

Thalamus

Relay center for all senses except smell being transmitted to sensory area of cortex, and relays motor impulses from cerebellum to motor areas

68

Hypothalamus

Under thalamus
Regulates autonomic nervous activity and contains hormones important for controlling metabolic activities (sugar and fat metabolism, circadian rhythms, body temp)

69

3 areas of brainstem

Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

70

Midbrain

Two way conduction pathway for visual and auditory impulses. Contains corpora quadrigemina (4 masses of grey cells)

71

Pons

Links cerebellum and medulla to higher cortical areas, regulates breathing, and has a role in somatic and visceral motor control

72

Medulla oblongata

Cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor control center; regulates breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure

73

Gyrus

Aka convolution
Bulge of cerebrum

74

Sulcus

Each shallow furrow of cerebrum

75

Cerebral cortex

Surface of cerebrum made of grey cell bodies, and divided into frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes

76

Frontal lobe

Major motor area, site for personality and speech

77

Parietal lobe

Sensory(temp, pressure, touch, muscle control) input from all over, interprets language, known as somesthetic

78

Temporal lobe

Hearing, smell, language input

79

Occipital lobe

Primary visual processing area

80

Infundibulum

Narrow stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

81

Brainstem

Lower part of brain, main motor and sensory inner cation to face and neck via cranial nerves
Visual, auditory, and sensory information; regulates cardiac and respiratory function
-PIVOTAL IN SLEEP CYCLE

82

Corpora quadrigemina

4 masses of grey cells in midbrain
Upper two associated with visual reflexes (superior colliculi)
Lower two involved with hearing (inferior colliculi)

83

White matter

Provides sensory input to brain and motor impulses from brain to spine

84

Conus medullaris

Between T12 and L1 where spinal cord becomes comically tapered

85

Filum terminale

Terminal thread of fibrous tissue that extends from conus medullaris to S2

86

Cauda equina

Horses tail
Terminal portion of spinal cord that forms nerve fibers that are the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerves

87

Functions of spinal cord

Conduct sensory impulses to brain and motor impulses from brain
Serve as reflex center for impulses entering and leaving w/o brain involvement

88

Cerebrospinal fluid

CSF
Cushions brain and spinal cord from shock and supports brain
Produced by choroid plexuses in brain ventricles, colorless fluid surrounding brain and spinal cord
Circulated through ventricles, central canal, and subarachnoid space

89

Arachnoid villi

Projections of arachnoid membrane, penetrate dura mater
They remove CSF from circulation and allow it to drain into superior sagittal sinus

90

Dorsal or sensory root

Division of spinal nerve that contains afferent fibers

91

Ventral root

Division of spinal nerve that contains efferent fibers

92

Cervical spinal nerves

8 pairs

93

Thoracic spinal nerves

12 pairs

94

Lumbar spinal nerves

5 pairs

95

Sacral spinal nerves

5 pairs

96

Coccygeal spinal nerves

1 pair

97

Two primary branches from each spinal nerve

Dorsal rami and ventral rami

98

Dorsal rami

Branch of spinal nerve that carries motor and sensory fibers to muscles and skin of back. Serve area from back of head to coccyx

99

Ventral rami

Branch of spinal nerve that carries motor and sensory fibers to muscles and organs including arms, legs, hands, and feet

100

Autonomic nervous system

Part of the PNS and controls involuntary bodily functions
Mainly made of efferent fibers from certain cranial and spinal nerves

101

Sympathetic division

Division of autonomic, consists of branches from ventral roots of 12 thoracic and 3 lumbar nerves, form masses outside spinal cord called sympathetic trunk which runs from base of head to coccyx

102

Fight or flight

Produced by sympathetic division, and includes increased alertness, metabolic rate, respiration, blood pressure, heart rate, and decreased digestive and urinary function. Triggers release of epinephrine

103

Parasympathetic division

Division of autonomic, branches from 4 cranial nerves and 3 sacral nerves, extend to ganglia near the organs. Regulates everyday activity such as slowing heart rate and reducing blood pressure. Rest and digest

104

Symptoms of Alzheimer's

Anger, aggression, anxiety, and apathy

105

Local anesthetic

Black nerve transmission in area they are applied

106

General anesthetic

Affect CNS and produce partial or complete unconsciousness. Produce analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and reduced reflexes

107

Cerebral angiography

Making X-ray record of cerebral arterial system. Radiopaque substance injected into arm or next and X-rays are taken

108

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis

Examination of CSF for color, pressure, pH, and levels of protein, glucose, and leukocytes

109

Computed tomography

Cat
Diagnostic procedure used to study brain structure

110

Echoencephalography

Using ultrasound to determine presence of centrally located mass in brain

111

Electroencephalography

EEG
Measuring electrical activity of brain via electroencephalograph

112

Lumbar puncture

LP
Insertion of needle into lumbar subarachnoid space to remove CSF and then CSF analysis is performed

113

Myelogram

X-ray of spinal canal after injection of radiopaque dye

114

Neurological examination

Assessment of vision, hearing, taste, smell, touch, pain, position, temp, gait, muscle strength, coordination, and reflex action to determine neurological status

115

Positron emission tomography

PET
Computer based nuclear imaging procedure that makes 3-D pictures of organ functioning

117

Ultrasonography, brain

High frequency sound waves to record echoes on an oscilloscope and film

118

akathisia

inability to remain still; motor restlessness and anxiety

119

akinesia

loss or lack of voluntary motion
a- lack of
-kinesia motion, movement

120

aphasia

loss or lack of the ability to speak
a- lack of
-phasia speech

121

apraxia

loss or lack of the ability to use objects properly and recognize common ones; lack of ability to perform daily tasks of living
a- lack of
-praxia action

122

asthenia

loss or lack of strength
a- lack of
-sthenia strength

123

craniotomy

surgical incision into the skull. operation in which a bone flap is removed from the skull to access the brain
crani/o skull
-tomy incision

124

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges of the spinal cord or brain. most recover with early diagnosis and prompt treatment
mening/o membrane, meninges
-itis inflammation

125

neuralgia

pain in a nerve or nerves
neur/o nerve
-algia pain

126

amnesia

condition in which there is a loss or lack of memory
a- lack of
mnes memory
-ia condition

127

analgesia

condition in which there is a lack of sensation of pain
an- lack of
-algesia condition of pain

128

anesthesia

loss or lack of the sense of feeling
an- lack of
-esthesia feeling

129

subdural

pertaining to below the dura mater
sub- below
dur dura, hard
-al pertaining to

130

endorphins

chemical substances produced in the brain that act as natural analgesics and provide feelings of pleasure

131

epidural

pertaining to on the dura mater, form of regional anesthetic involving injection of medication into the epidural space. blocks transmission of signals through nerves in/near spinal cord
epi- upon
dur dura, hard
-al pertaining to

132

herpes zoster

viral disease characterized by painful vesicular eruptions along the segment of the spinal or cranial nerves (aka shingles)

133

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower part of the body and of both legs
para- beside
-plegia stroke, paralysis

134

paresis

slight, partial, or incomplete paralysis

135

paresthesia

abnormal sensation, feeling of numbness, prickling, or tingling
par- beside
-esthesia feeling

136

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the grey matter of the spinal cord
poli/o grey
myel/o spinal cord
-itis inflammation

137

stroke

death of brain tissue that occurs when brain doesn't get enough blood or oxygen. can be thrombotic or hemorrhagic

138

sympathectomy

surgical excision of a portion of the sympathetic nervous system
sympath sympathy
-ectomy surgical excision