Ch. 4-Organization of Body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 4-Organization of Body Deck (35):
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Atom

Smallest basic chemical unit of an element. Contains nucleus, protons, neutrons, electrons

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Chemical element

Substance that cannot be broken down any further; made up of atoms

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6 Elements in the Body

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus

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Molecules

Combination of two or more atoms that form a compound

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Cells

Basic building blocks; perform specific functions

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Cell membrane

Outside layer of cell; has selective permeability

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Cytoplasm

Substance between nucleus and cell membrane, composed mostly of water, it's where all the work happens that is not happening in the nucleus

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Nucleus

Responsible for cell's metabolism, growth, and reproduction. The cell's "brain". Also contains the chromosomes

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Genome

Complete set of genes and chromosomes inside each cell

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How many pairs of chromosomes does the body have?

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Stem cells

Originate primarily from embryo; they can divide and renew themselves and basically form any type of tissue

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Tissue

Group of similar cells that perform a specialized function

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Four types of I tissue

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve

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Epithelial tissue

Outer surfaces of body; lines body cavities, organs, and passageways; forms secreting portions of glands (sweat gland for example)

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Connective tissue

Most widespread and abundant tissue, supporting network for organs, connects muscle to bone and bone to joint, bone is a dense form of this

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3 types of muscle tissue

Skeletal (voluntary)
Smooth muscle (involuntary)
Cardiac (involuntary)

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Skeletal muscle tissue

Striated in appearance and is associated with movement and strength

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Smooth muscle tissue

Lines outside of organs, involuntary movement

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Cardiac muscle tissue

Found only in the heart, keeps it beating

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Nerve tissue

Contains neurons and glia cells, controls and coordinates actions of the body

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Organs

Several different tissues that serve a common purpose

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Organ systems

Group of organs that have common purpose

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Sagittal plane

Vertically divides body into left and right portions

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Transverse plane

Divides body into superior and inferior portions just below the waist

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Coronal or frontal plane

Vertically divides body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions

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Drugs for therapeutic use

Relieves symptoms or sustains patient until an alternative can be used

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Drugs for diagnostic use

A drug taken so a doctor can locate something, for example drinking something before a cat scan so they can see inside better

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Drugs for curative use

Removes the causing agent

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Drugs for replacement use

Replaces something in the body (vitamins or hormones)

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Drugs for preventative or prophylactic use

Prevent disease or reduce severity

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Chemical name of a drug

Formula that describes composition of drug

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Generic name of drug

Official name with description of chemical structure. Always written in lowercase

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Trade or brand name of drug

Capitalized, name you'll see in ads on TV or pamphlets

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Undesirable action

Unintended reaction that can happen that the doctor is aware of

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Adverse reaction

Unintended reaction that the doctor is not aware of