Ch 2: Theories of Human Dev Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2: Theories of Human Dev Deck (77)
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1

Erikson's 2-3-4 stage of development

2. Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt

3. Initiative vs. Guilt

4. Industry vs. Inferiority

2

Erikson's developmental stage: Trust vs. Mistrust

(1) If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust. Negative outcomes cause withdrawal from abuse and neglect

3

Erikson's first 3 stages of development

1. Trust vs Mistrust

2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

3. Initiative vs. Guilt

4

Behavior is formed as a result of consequences experienced

Operant Conditioning -- B. F. Skinner

5

Social Cognitive Theory

Observational learning; learning through observing others

6

Jean Piaget's developmental stage: sensorimotor stage

Infants (0-2) learn through their senses; OBJECT PERMANENCE occurs with the infant able to symbolize the object and realize that objects exist even if out of sensory experience

7

Erikson's stage of development: Initiative vs. Guilt

(3) Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent

8

Erikson's developmental stage: Intimacy vs. Isolation

(6) Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

9

An infant's primary interaction with the world is through the mouth. The mouth is vital for eating, tasting and sucking. If need is not met, the child may develop an oral fixation later in life (e.g. thumb sucking, smoking, fingernail biting, overeating) (which Freud's stage of development?)

Oral Stage (birth to 1)

10

Who emphasized development from within a social context -- not sexual

Erik Erikson

11

During this stage, children develop social skills, values, and relationships with peers and adults outside the family. (Freud)

Latent Stage (6-11)

12

Bronfenbrenner stage of development: Mesosystem

Relationships between microsystem: family & school, school & church. (children who's parents reject/neglect them may have difficulty developing positive relations with peers/teachers)

13

Erikson's 1-4 stages of development

1. Trust vs Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority

14

Emphasizes the role of culture in promoting certain types of activities; children master tasks that are deemed culturally important

Sociocultural perspective -- Lev Vygotsky

15

Bronfenbrenner's stage of development: Microsystem

the immediate surroundings of the individual and their interactions (most direct): parents, peers, teachers

16

Jean Piaget's developmental stage: Preoperational stage

Early adolescents (2-7) believe everyone sees the world the way they do (EGOCENTRISM); development of CONSERVATION (the ability to understand that quantity does not change if the shape changes)

17

Erikson's 8 stages of development

1. Trust vs Mistrust
2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
4. Industry vs. Inferiority
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
8. Integrity vs. Despair

18

Behavior which is rewarded will continue

operant conditioning -- B. F. Skinner

19

____'s theory of cognitive development describes how humans gather and organize information and how this process changes developmentally.

Jean Piaget

20

Behaviorism theorists (3)

John B. Watson (1878-1958)
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Albert Bandura (1925-)

21

Each stage presents a unique developmental task or "crisis" (what theorist?)

Erikson

22

Believed that social and cultural interaction guide cognitive development

Sociocultural perspective -- Lev Vygotsky

23

Erikson's 4-5-6 stage of development

4. Industry vs. Inferiority

5. Identity vs. Role Confusion

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

24

Erikson's 5-6-7 stage of development

5. Identity vs. Role Confusion

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

25

During this stage, people develop a strong interest in the opposite sex, and the onset of puberty causes the libido to become active once again. (Freud)

Genital Stage (11-18)

26

Development is a result of an ongoing, bidirectional interchange between heredity and environment.

Epigenetic Theory of Development (Erikson)

27

Erikson's 6-7-8 stage of development

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

8. Integrity vs. Despair

28

Development is in stages, progress through each stage is in part determined by success, or lack of success, in all previous stages. (what theorist?)

Erikson

29

Believed that a person's psychological responses and behaviors were reflections of biological instinctual drives.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

30

Sociocultural perspective

Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)