Ch. 22: The Human Brain Flashcards Preview

Bio > Ch. 22: The Human Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 22: The Human Brain Deck (75):
1

Process information about touch and is involved in self-awareness

Parietal lobe

2

Process voluntary muscle movements and is involved in planning and organizing future expressive behavior

Frontal lobe

3

Involved in processing auditory and olfactory information and is important in memory and emotion

Temporal lobe

4

Processes visual information for the eyes

Occipital lobe

5

The deeply wrinkled outer surface of the cerebrum

Cerebral cortex

6

The communication link between the hemispheres

Corpus callosum

7

Paired structures found deep within each cerebral hemisphere

Caudate nuclei

8

Structure that relays info between the spinal chord and the cerebrum

Thalamus

9

Controls sex drive pleasure pain thirst hunger blood pressure and body temp

Hypothalamus

10

Controls balance muscle movement and coordination

Cerebellum

11

Governs reflexes and spontaneous functions such as heartbeat respiration swallowing and coughing

Brain stem

12

Adjusts the sensitivity of your eyes to the sound

Midbrain

13

Functions and a bridge, allowing messages to travel between the brain and the spinal chord

Pons

14

Helps control heart rate and conveys info between the spinal cord and other parts of the brain

Medulla oblongata

15

Receive messages from the other neurons

Dendrites

16

Houses the nucleus

Cell bodys

17

Protective layers on axons

Myelin sheath

18

The cells that form the myelin sheath

Schwann cells

19

Nervous tissue composed of myelinated cells

White matter

20

Unmyelinated axons combined with dendrites and the cell bodies of other neurons

Gray matter

21

The difference in the charge across the membrane

Polarization

22

The decrease of charge difference

Depolarization

23

Occurs when the potassium ions diffuse out of the cell and the inside of the cell again become more negative than the outside

Repolarization

24

Reduced anxiety and sense of wellbeing loss of concern for social constraints

Alcohol

25

Make a person feel more energetic alter and confident

Amphetamines

26

Cause mental alertness and increased energy

Caffein

27

A rush of intense pleasure increased self confidence and increased physical vigor

Cocaine

28

Euphoria enhanced emotional and mental clarity increased energy heightened sensitivity to touch and enhanced sexual response

Ecstasy

29

Sensory perception and bizarre changes in thought and emotion and hallucinations

LSD

30

Altered sense of time enhances feeling of closeness to others increased sensitivity to stimuli

Marijuana

31

Increased alertness and awareness appetite suppression and relaxation

Nicotine

32

A quick and intense feeling of pleasure followed by a sense of wellbeing and drowsiness

Opiates

33

The whole upper part of the skull

Cerebrum

34

Sends messages to other neurons

Axon

35

Slows down the body

Parasympathetic

36

Controls the body's response to a perceived threat and speeds up the body

Sympathetic NS

37

Controls visceral functions like breathing

Autonomic

38

Associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the skeletal muscles

Somatic

39

Carry information towards the CNS

Sensory neurons

40

Receives and interprets the messages and decide how to respond

Nervous system

41

Receiving and responding to stimuli required the actions of specialized cells called

Neurons

42

The electrochemical message caring cells can be bundled together producing structures called

Nerves

43

Parents from an extensive network throughout your body highly concentrated in your brain and spinal cord called

Central nervous system CNS

44

Respond to nerve signals

Effectors

45

Information carried along by electrical changes called

Nerve impulses

46

Changes and ion concentration or by chemicals called

Neurotransmitters

47

Sensory input is detected by

Sensory neurons

48

Located between the sensory and motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord

Interneurons

49

Temperature paint touch pressure and body position

General senses

50

Smell taste equilibrium hearing and vision

Special senses

51

The main nerve pathway

Spinal cord

52

Protects her spinal cord from injury is made up of bones called

Vertebrae

53

Automatic responses to stimulus

Reflexes

54

Reflexes are prewired in a circuit of neurons called

Reflex arc

55

Includes the network of nerves that radiates out from your brain and spinal cord

Peripheral nervous system PNS

56

The brain is house inside where it sits in a liquid bath called

Cerebrospinal fluid

57

The green is composed of other cells called

Glial cells

58

Caused by the malfunctioning of neurons that produce dopamine

Parkinson's disease

59

If progressive mental deterioration in which there is a memory loss along with the loss of control of bodily functions that eventually result in death

Alzheimer's disease

60

Relays info processes info and analyzes info

Functions of the nervous system

61

Specialized neurons cents joint position tension enjoyed the ligaments and muscle contractions these neurons relay messages to the brain along with balance information from the inner ear

Proprioception

62

The pathway of nerve impulse flow to and from the brain

Spinal cord

63

The unmyelinated patches

Nodes of ranvier

64

Removes 3 Na out of the cell for every 2 K it brings into the cell

Sodium potassium pump

65

The clear front surface of the eye that acts like a camera lens

Cornea

66

Functions like the diaphragm of a camera controlling the amount of light reaching the back of the eye by automatically adjusting the size of the pupil

Iris

67

Focuses light

Lens

68

Each of the second pair of cranial nerves transmitting impulses to the brain from the retina at the back of the eye

Optic nerve

69

A layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and the trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain

Retina

70

It white outer layer of the eyeball

Sclera

71

In the clear fluid filling the space in front of the eyeball between the lens and the cornea

Aqueous humor

72

The narrow passageway from the outer ear to the eardrum

Auditory canal

73

The spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Cordy which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations

Cochlea

74

Ingersoll forming part of a pathway along which impulses pass from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland

Motor neuron

75

A membrane forming part of the organ of hearing

Tympanic membrane