Ch. 7 Taste, Smell, Mechano (Book) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 7 Taste, Smell, Mechano (Book) Deck (62)
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31

kinocilium microtubule arrangement

9+2 like other motile cilia

32

stereocilia arrangement

increasing length from one side of the cell to another

mechanically linked and move as a bundle

33

ultimately, movement of the ________ produces an electrical signal (hair cells)

stereocilia

34

when the stereocilia bends toward the kinocilium, the hair cell ______ and when the stereocilia bends away from the kinocilium the hair cell ________

depolarizes, hyperpolarizes

35

lateral line system

fishes and amphibians

external receptors based on hair cells

detects movement in water

36

lateral line system receptors

kinocilia of many hair cells embedded in an accessory structure called a cupula

cupula bends toward kinocilia when displaced

37

at rest, about __% of channels in a hair cell are open, producing a resting potential of about -____

15%, -60mV

38

do hair cells produce APs?

no, they release nt in a graded fashion onto primary afferent neurons

39

asymmetry of hair cell output

displacement toward kinocilium produces larger depolarization than same displacement away from kinocilium (small hyperpolarization)

40

stratocyst

organ that detects an animal's position and acceleration with respect to gravity

41

stratocyst structure

hollow fluid-filled cavity lined with mechanoreceptors that contact the stratolith

42

stratolith

structure made of sand grains, calcarous concentrations, or another dense material

must have a higher specific gravity than surrounding fluid

acquired from the animal's surroundings or secreted by stratocyst epithelial cells

43

what happens to the startolith when an animal moves

it rests on different regions of the stratocyst epithelium, which stimulates tonic discharge from ciliated receptor cells

44

2 functions of the vertebrate ear

report position of the animal

hearing

45

in vertebrates, the organs of equilibrium reside in a membranous labyrinth with 2 chambers...

sacculus and utriculus surrounded by bone and filled with endolymph

46

utriculus

gives rise to 3 semicircular canals of the inner ear

hair cells here detect acceleration of the head, endolymph moves the cupula --> bends cilia of hair cells

47

all the hair cells in a semicircular canal have their kinocilia on the ____ side

same

so all are excited or inhibited at once

48

maculae

3 patches of hair cells below the semicircular canals

Detect tilt

49

what is sound

a mechanical vibration that propagates through air or water

travels as waves

50

the external ear functions as a ______

funnel that collects sound waves from the air and concentrates the pressure on the eardrum (tympanic membrane)

51

external structures of the ear... pinna and tragus

help collection of sound waves and modify directional sensitivity

52

to detect sound, airborne vibrations must be transmitted where

from the outer and middle ear to the fluid-filled inner ear where the auditory receptor hair cells are

53

auditory ossicles

malleus incus stapes

energy from moving eardrum is transmitted to the ossicles through the oval window to the inner ear

54

cochlea

fluid-filled chamber that looks like a snail shell containing the receptor hair cells

hair cells encode frequency and intensity of sound

55

perilymph

in the cochlea

high [Na+]

56

organ of corti

has cochlear hair cells and bathed in endolymph

57

inner hair cells of organ of corti vs outer hair cells

inner hair cells: detect vibrations

outer hair cells: touch tectorial memb and change length rapidly to amplify vibrations

58

cochlear electrical signals reflect _______ of receptor currents from numerous hair cells

summation

transduction happens with movement of basilar memb bends tips of stereocilia laterally

59

_______ K+ current depolarizes hair cells of ear

inward (unusual b/c of high K+ in endolymph)

60

tip links

fine strands that connect each stereocilium to its taller neighbor

when bent, all move and many ion channels are opened TRPA1 channels