Flashcards in Ch.10 PAIN Deck (45)
What is Pain?
▪️body defence mechanism
Level of stimulation to elicit a pain response
➰ usually does not vary between individual
The ability to cope with pain. Culturally related. Varies between individuals
A receptor is a specialized region of a sensory (afferent) neutron that detects a specific stimulus
Sensory Receptor Types:
Sensory receptor for tactile skin sensation, deep tissue sensation, hearing and proprioception
Sensory receptor for vision?
Sensory receptor for taste and smell?
Sensory receptor for pain?
Example for tactile skin sensation?
Examples of deep-tissue sensation
🔘Hair follicle end organ
🔘Free nerve endings
Example for this function is Cochlear sound receptor
Example for this function are rods & cons
Example for this function is taste bud receptor
Example for this function is olfactory epithelium receptors
Example for this function is free nerve endings
What are the causes of pain?
▫️thermal (above 45°C and below 5°C)
▫️ischemia and tissue necrosis
▫️stretching of tissue (distention)
▫️stretching of tendons, ligaments, joint capsule
Examples of pain-genesis?
▫️distension or contraction of hollow organs
▫️muscle and tendon tears leading to inflammation
▫️compression/entrapment of nerves (neuropathic pain and radicular pain)
"Sensing of pain" - activation of nociceptors and the subsequent feeling of pain.
Pain consists of several events:
1. Signal transduction (activation of nociceptos)
2. Signal transmission (along 1st, 2nd and 3rd order neutrons)
3. Perception of pain - occurs in cerebrum
4. Signal modulation (enhance or depress pain signal)
responsible for detection of injured (inflamed) tissue
▫️they are found primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
Nociceptive vs. Neuropathic pain
Nociceptive pain: the sensation that is felt from activation of nociceptors
Neuropathic pain: sensation felt from direct neural damage (nerve compression or partial severance)
Types of Sensory Fibers:
is large, myelinated fibers - mostly cutaneous
an A-fibers transmit motor impulses and proprioceptive information
an A-fibers that transmit touch and pressure sensation
An A-fibers that transmit thermal and pressure sensations (hot, cold, pressure, stretch)
"Fast pain fibers" ➡️ pain conducted along these fibers is usually described as "sharp, stabbing and localized"
A smaller myelinated fibers found mainly in the pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system.
This fiver transmit motor impulses only.