Ch.10 PAIN Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology for PN > Ch.10 PAIN > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch.10 PAIN Deck (45)
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1

What is Pain?

▪️unpleasant sensation
▪️body defence mechanism
▪️complex mechanisms
▪️subjective scales

2

Level of stimulation to elicit a pain response
➰ usually does not vary between individual

Pain threshold

3

The ability to cope with pain. Culturally related. Varies between individuals

Pain tolerance

4

A receptor is a specialized region of a sensory (afferent) neutron that detects a specific stimulus

Sensory Receptors

5

Sensory Receptor Types:

▪️mechanoreceptor
▪️photoreceptor
▪️chemoreceptor
▪️nociceptor

6

Sensory receptor for tactile skin sensation, deep tissue sensation, hearing and proprioception

Mechanoreceptor

7

Sensory receptor for vision?

Photoreceptor

8

Sensory receptor for taste and smell?

Chemoreceptor

9

Sensory receptor for pain?

Nociceptor

10

Example for tactile skin sensation?

Merkel cells

11

Examples of deep-tissue sensation

🔘Ruffini endings
🔘Meissen corpuscles
🔘Pacinian corpuscle
🔘Hair follicle end organ
🔘Free nerve endings

12

Example for this function is Cochlear sound receptor

Hearing

13

Example for this function are rods & cons

Vision

14

Example for this function is taste bud receptor

Taste

15

Example for this function is olfactory epithelium receptors

Smell

16

Example for this function is free nerve endings

Pain

17

What are the causes of pain?

▫️inflammation
▫️thermal (above 45°C and below 5°C)
▫️infection
▫️ischemia and tissue necrosis
▫️stretching of tissue (distention)
▫️stretching of tendons, ligaments, joint capsule
▫️chemicals
▫️burns
▫️muscle spasm

18

Examples of pain-genesis?

▫️atherosclerosis
▫️distension or contraction of hollow organs
▫️surgical incisions
▫️muscle and tendon tears leading to inflammation
▫️compression/entrapment of nerves (neuropathic pain and radicular pain)

19

"Sensing of pain" - activation of nociceptors and the subsequent feeling of pain.

Nociception

20

Pain consists of several events:

1. Signal transduction (activation of nociceptos)
2. Signal transmission (along 1st, 2nd and 3rd order neutrons)
3. Perception of pain - occurs in cerebrum
4. Signal modulation (enhance or depress pain signal)

21

responsible for detection of injured (inflamed) tissue
▫️they are found primarily in the skin and mucous membranes

Nociceptors

22

Nociceptive vs. Neuropathic pain

Nociceptive pain: the sensation that is felt from activation of nociceptors
Neuropathic pain: sensation felt from direct neural damage (nerve compression or partial severance)

23

Types of Sensory Fibers:

▫️A-fibers
▫️A-alpha fibers
▫️A-Beta fibers
▫️A-delta fibers
▫️B-fibers
▫️C-fibers

24

is large, myelinated fibers - mostly cutaneous

A-fibers

25

an A-fibers transmit motor impulses and proprioceptive information

A-alpha fibers

26

an A-fibers that transmit touch and pressure sensation

A-beta fibers

27

An A-fibers that transmit thermal and pressure sensations (hot, cold, pressure, stretch)

A-delta fibers

28

"Fast pain fibers" ➡️ pain conducted along these fibers is usually described as "sharp, stabbing and localized"

A-delta fibers

29

A smaller myelinated fibers found mainly in the pre-ganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system.
This fiver transmit motor impulses only.

B-fibers

30

Small un-myelinated fibers located mostly in the viscera and are stimulated by chemical irritants (plus some stretching /distension)
"Slow pain fibers"
Pain along these fibers are described as "diffuse, dull, and aching"

C-fibers