Flashcards in Ch3 - Inflammation And Tissue Repair Deck (91)
Inflammation is a non-specific response of body to local tissue injury. Part of the _________ of defense.
2nd line defense
Functions of inflammation?
1. Increase blood flow to site (vascular response)
2. Increase healing cells at site (cellular response)
3. Prepare for tissue repair
Lines of defense:
1st: skin and mucous membranes
3rd : immune response
Causes of inflammation?
▫️infection - microbial agent
▫️physical agents - trauma, electrical, temperature
▫️radiation - ionizing, nonionizing, UV
▫️chemicals - acid, alkali, toxins
🔹drugs, lead, ethanol, mercury
▫️nutritional - excesses or deficiencies
▫️ischemia/infarction- auto, allo, allergy
▫️Genetic and metabolic disorders
Advantages of inflammation?
▫️serves to isolate and localize injured area, protecting normal tissue
▫️can neutralize and inactivate toxic substances
▫️destroys and limits growth of microorganism
▫️prepares the area for wound healing and repair by cleaning debris
Disadvantages of inflammation:
▫️Infection: microorganisms ca more easily penetrate oedematous tissues
▫️deep ulcers: result of severe or prolonged inflammation
▫️scar tissue: due to excessive tissue damage
▫️local complications: depend on site of inflammation but may include obstruction, loss of sensation, and decreased cell function.
🔺white blood cell
🔺endothelial or damaged tissue cells
it's primary role is to destroy and remove microorganisms to prevent infection through opsonization (making bacteria vulnerable to phagocytosis) and cell lysis (destruction)
*produced in the liver
promotes coagulation through a cascade of clotting factors
Source of highly potent vasoactive inflammatory mediators. Amplifies the inflammatory response by triggering other inflammatory mediators.
▫️increased capillary membrane permeability
Cellular response ?
_______cells are housed in connective tissues of body and near all blood vessels - allows for immediate release of chemical mediators into blood stream
_________are released from WBC platelets and injured cells and signal to trigger, enhance or discontinue the inflammation response.
Cells Active in cellular response:
Role of these cell is phagocytosis; removal of dead tissue
A type of WBC; earliest phagocytize responders
A type of WBC; Large, king-lived phagocytes associated with a prolonged (chronic) inflammatory response; monocytes are immature macrophages
It's a type of cell that carry oxygen to tissues
It's a type of cell that trap harmful substances; stop bleeding; form structural origin of repair
1. scar tissue
2. Regeneration (replacement by same type of cell)
3. Resolution (damaged cells recover)
Local Manifestation of acute inflammation:
(5 cardinal clinical signs)
1. Redness (erythema)
5. Exudate and edema
Other possible systemic manifestations:
1. Malaise Headache
4. Mild fever - due to pyrogens from macrophages
5. Increased circulating leukocytes and plasma proteins
Benefits of fever
▫️decreases rate of multiplication of pathogens
▫️prevents release of Fe & Z from liver which bacteria feed on
▫️increased tissue repair process
Treatment of inflammation:
▫️reduced blood flow
▫️ decrease swelling
▫️block the action of chemical mediators
type of inflammation, usually rapid onset w/ minimal damage and rapid resolution. It is characterized by the formation of exudates/edema.
A collection of interstitial fluid formed in the inflamed area.