Ch3 - Inflammation And Tissue Repair Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology for PN > Ch3 - Inflammation And Tissue Repair > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch3 - Inflammation And Tissue Repair Deck (91)
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1

Inflammation is a non-specific response of body to local tissue injury. Part of the _________ of defense.

2nd line defense

2

Functions of inflammation?

1. Increase blood flow to site (vascular response)
2. Increase healing cells at site (cellular response)
3. Prepare for tissue repair

3

Lines of defense:
▫️first:
▫️second:
▫️third:

1st: skin and mucous membranes
2nd: Inflammatory
3rd : immune response

4

Causes of inflammation?

▫️infection - microbial agent
▫️physical agents - trauma, electrical, temperature
▫️radiation - ionizing, nonionizing, UV
▫️chemicals - acid, alkali, toxins
🔹drugs, lead, ethanol, mercury
▫️nutritional - excesses or deficiencies
▫️ischemia/infarction- auto, allo, allergy
▫️Genetic and metabolic disorders

5

Advantages of inflammation?

▫️serves to isolate and localize injured area, protecting normal tissue
▫️can neutralize and inactivate toxic substances
▫️destroys and limits growth of microorganism
▫️prepares the area for wound healing and repair by cleaning debris

6

Disadvantages of inflammation:

▫️Infection: microorganisms ca more easily penetrate oedematous tissues
▫️deep ulcers: result of severe or prolonged inflammation
▫️scar tissue: due to excessive tissue damage
▫️local complications: depend on site of inflammation but may include obstruction, loss of sensation, and decreased cell function.
▫️Pain

7

Chemical mediators?

🔹Cell-derived
🔹plasma derived

8

Cell-derived?

🔺white blood cell
🔺platelets
🔺endothelial or damaged tissue cells

9

Plasma-derived:

🔺complement system
🔺kinin system
🔺clotting system

10

it's primary role is to destroy and remove microorganisms to prevent infection through opsonization (making bacteria vulnerable to phagocytosis) and cell lysis (destruction)

*produced in the liver

Complement

11

promotes coagulation through a cascade of clotting factors

Clotting

12

Source of highly potent vasoactive inflammatory mediators. Amplifies the inflammatory response by triggering other inflammatory mediators.

Kinin

13

Vascular response?

▫️increased capillary membrane permeability
▫️vasodilation
▫️hyperaemia

14

Cellular response ?

▫️chemotaxis
▫️cellular adherence
▫️cellular migration

15

_______cells are housed in connective tissues of body and near all blood vessels - allows for immediate release of chemical mediators into blood stream

Mast cell

16

_________are released from WBC platelets and injured cells and signal to trigger, enhance or discontinue the inflammation response.

Cytokines

17

Cells Active in cellular response:

▫️leukocytes
▫️neutrophils
▫️macrophages
▫️erythrocytes
▫️platelets

18

Role of these cell is phagocytosis; removal of dead tissue

Leukocytes

19

A type of WBC; earliest phagocytize responders

Neutrophils

20

A type of WBC; Large, king-lived phagocytes associated with a prolonged (chronic) inflammatory response; monocytes are immature macrophages

Macrophages

21

It's a type of cell that carry oxygen to tissues

Erythrocyte

22

It's a type of cell that trap harmful substances; stop bleeding; form structural origin of repair

Platelets

23

Healing undergoes:

1. scar tissue
2. Regeneration (replacement by same type of cell)
3. Resolution (damaged cells recover)

24

Local Manifestation of acute inflammation:
(5 cardinal clinical signs)

1. Redness (erythema)
2. Heat
3. Incapacitation
4. Pain
5. Exudate and edema

25

Other possible systemic manifestations:

1. Malaise Headache
2. Fatigue
3. Anorexia
4. Mild fever - due to pyrogens from macrophages
5. Increased circulating leukocytes and plasma proteins

26

Benefits of fever

▫️stimulates phagocytosis
▫️decreases rate of multiplication of pathogens
▫️prevents release of Fe & Z from liver which bacteria feed on
▫️increased tissue repair process

27

Treatment of inflammation:

▫️reduced blood flow
▫️ decrease swelling
▫️block the action of chemical mediators
▫️decrease pain

28

type of inflammation, usually rapid onset w/ minimal damage and rapid resolution. It is characterized by the formation of exudates/edema.

Acute

29

A collection of interstitial fluid formed in the inflamed area.

Edema

30

Function of exudates:

1. Carry plasma proteins and leukocytes to injured area
2. Neutralize the inflammation reaction
3. Dilute toxins