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Pathophysiology for PN > Altered Neuronal Transmission > Flashcards

Flashcards in Altered Neuronal Transmission Deck (50)
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1

It provide neurons with metabolic support and protection

supporting cells

2

is the fundamental unit of the nervous system; it has highly specialized functions in impulse transmission

The Neuron

3

The nervous system is composed of:

▫️CNS (brain and spinal chord)
▫️PNS (spinal and cranial nerves; somatic and autonomic [SNS and PNS] nervous system)

4

Nervous tissue of the CNS is composed of both:

▫️ white and gray matter

5

It provides protective and metabolic functions in the CNS:

▫️meningis (dura, arachnoid, pila)
▫️CSF

6

The spinal nerves are categorized based on their relationship with spinal vertebrae:

▫️cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral

7

Autonomic functions are carried out by:

▫️SNS and PNS

8

contributes to disability and is the basis for a variety of neurologic disorders.

Neuronal injury

9

the most common cause of injury to the nervous system, leading to neurologic impairment because of brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerve injury.

Trauma

10

It may represent primary or secondary causes of neurologic impairment

▫️Ischemic
▫️excitation
▫️pressure injury

11

is a group of disorders resulting from damage to upper motor neurons with symptoms appearing during the first few years of life.

Cerebral Palsy

12

Astrocytes

supporting cell that provide structural support and regulate gases and metabolites in interstitial fluid. Blood brain barrier

13

Supporting cells in __ (CNS) and ___ (PNS) Myelination

▫️oligodendocytes
▫️Schwann cells

14

supporting cells for phagocytosis

Microglia (CNS)

15

supporting cells that line ventricular system to produce, monitor, and circulate CSF

▫️Epebdymal (CNS)

16

supporting cells for structural support. Help to support cell body they surround it like a helmet.

Satellite (PNS)

17

in the spinal cord, ____ - efferent motor neurons leaving cord

Ventral horn

18

in the Spinal Cord, ____ - sensory neurons receiving afferent impulses goes in

Dorsal horn

19

What are the CNS protection?

▫️cerebrovascular circulation
🔺capillaries, circle of Willis, blood brain barrier
▫️blood-brain barrier
▫️cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
🔺cushion, provision of nutrients

20

Peripheral Nervous System Organization?

▫️Somatic
🔺motor and sensory impulses between the CNS and the periphery (cranial nerves and spinal nerves)
▫️Autonomic (SNS and PNS)

21

Mechanism of Neuronal Injury:

1. Traumatic
2. Ischemic
3. Excitation
4. Pressure

22

Damage to neurons results from the following processes:

▫️chromatolysis
▫️atrophy
▫️neuronophagia
▫️intraneuronal inclusions

23

is a type of neuron injury: neuronal swelling causing NT death

Chromatolysis

24

a type of neuron injury: decrease in size (could be from dehydration or lack of O2 where shrinking occurs to reduce workload)

▫️atrophy

25

a type of neuron injury: phagocytosis and inflammatory responses caused by a dead neuron damaging neighboring cells ➡️ use of microglial cells

▫️neuronophagia

26

type of injury to neuron: distinct structures formed within nucleus or cytoplasm ex. lead, proteins

▫️intraneuronal inclusions

27

CNS cellular response to injury:

▫️astrogliosis
▫️microglial nodules
▫️axonal degeneration
▫️axonal regeneration
▫️neuropathy
▫️demyelination

28

___ increased number of astrocytes causing glial scarring affecting sorround neuronal functioning

▫️Astrogliosis

29

is a “nodule-like” clustering of microglial cells around dead/dying neuronal cells

▫️Microglial nodules

30

is caused by delayed nerve conduction and sensory perception

Neuropathy