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Flashcards in CH5 - Infection Deck (33)
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1
Q

A state of tissue destruction resulting from invasion of microorganisms:

A

Infection

2
Q

Any microorganisms that can cause a disease ➡️ must be able to bind to human host cells

▫️directly destroys host cells
▫️interferes host cells metabolic capabilities
▫️exposes host cell to toxins

A

Pathogens

3
Q

pathogenicity- qualities that allow microorganism to promote a disease.

A
▫️virulence
▫️infectivity
▫️toxigenicity
▫️antigenicity
▫️antigenic variability 
▫️pathogenic defense mechanisms
4
Q

The majority of _____ are harmless to humans and may even be beneficial to our lives ➡️ could not survive w/o them

▫️antibiotic
▫️insulin
▫️food industry: in bread making, yogurt, cheese

A

Microorganisms

5
Q
The beneficial population of microbes (bacteria, viruses, Protozoa) that live in and on our bodies
▫️nose, pharynx 
▫️mouth, colon, rectum
▫️vagina
▫️distal urethra and perineum
A

Normal flora

6
Q

Manifestation of infection - Systemic

A
▫️fever
▫️weakness 
▫️headache
▫️malaise 
▫️anorexia
▫️nausea
7
Q

Manifestation of infection - Local

A
▫️heat
▫️incapacitation
▫️Pain 
▫️edema
▫️redness
▫️lymphadenitis
▫️purulent exudate
8
Q

Classes of microorganisms

A

▫️bacteria
▫️viruses
▫️Protozoa
▫️fungi

9
Q

Sterile areas of the body:

A
▫️blood, CSF
▫️Lungs
▫️stomach
▫️ uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries
▫️bladder and kidneys
10
Q

▫️A single-called microorganisms
▫️do not require living tissues to survive
▫️vary in size and shape
▫️divide by binary fission - can occur outside of host cells
Components: cell membrane, indiscrete nucleus, cytosol

A

Bacteria - a full living cell

can essentially duplicate

11
Q

Living requirements of bacteria

A
▫️moisture 
▫️food
▫️electrolyte balance 
▫️adequate temperature 
▫️adequate O2
▫️adequate pH
▫️adequate light
12
Q

released from cell walls of bacteria when they are lysed.

A

Endotoxins

13
Q

A unicellular organisms that do not require living tissue to survive. They vary in size, shape, and arrangement

A

Bacteria

14
Q

A bacterium has one or two types of cell walls, which differ in chemical composition.

A

Gram-positive or gram-negative

15
Q

Some bacteria secrete toxic substances, toxins, and enzymes.
Toxins consists of two types:

A

Exotoxins and endotoxins

16
Q

A latent form of bacterium with coating that is highly resistant to heat and other adverse conditions. bacteria resume a vegetative state and reproduce.

Ex. Tetanus and botulism

A

Spores

17
Q

Are produced by some bacteria and are a source of damage to the host tissues or cells. promote spread of infection

Ex: hemolysin

A

Enzymes

18
Q

A non-living intracellular parasites -requires host cells to survive

A

▫️Viruses

19
Q

Viruses consists of:

A

▫️protein coat or capsid (comes in many shapes sizes and undergoes change relatively quickly in the evolution of the virions)
▫️ genetic material (either DNA or RNA)

20
Q

A large microorganisms found throughout environment
▫️on animals, plants, humans, food
▫️unicellular ➡️ yeast
▫️multicellular ➡️ moods and mushrooms

A

Fungi

21
Q

Fungi infections are termed ?..

A

▫️mycoses or mycotic infections

22
Q

Only few fungi are pathogenic, causing infection on the skin or mucous membranes. such as:

A
▫️pneumonia
▫️thrush mouth
▫️ring worm (scalp)
▫️vaginitis (candidiasis)
▫️athletes foot
23
Q

Benefits of Fungi:

A

▫️major role in decomposition of dead matter, providing nutrients for other organisms
▫️antibiotic drugs (e.g. penicillin)
▫️food production (yogurt, bread)
▫️also keep bacteria, viruses at bay (ex.resident flora)

24
Q

Complex unicellular organisms found in water, soil ➡️ important in food chain as producers and decomposers

Transmission occurs through contaminated food or water, sexual contact,mor a vector.

A

Protozoa

25
Q

Common protozoal diseases:

A

▫️malaria
▫️traveler’s diarrhea
▫️dysentery

26
Q

Phases of Acute infection:

🔺infection is established if host’s defense s are insufficient to destroy pathogens

A
  1. Exposure
  2. Incubation
  3. Prodrome
  4. Clinical illness
  5. Convalescence
27
Q

complications of infection:

A

▫️septicaemia

▫️chronic infection

28
Q

Common Laboratory and Diagnostic test to Detect infection

A
  1. WBC count
  2. Serum antibody levels
  3. Cultures
  4. Sensitivities
29
Q

elevation in WBC w/c may indicate an infectious process, often bacterial in origin

A

Leukocytosis

30
Q

decrease in WBC, which may indicate a viral infection or a problem with suppression of WBC production

A

Leukopenia

31
Q

A lab test that identifies w/c anti microbial drugs would be most effective for a specific pathogen

A

Sensitivities

32
Q

Certain factors decrease host resistance to infection

A
▫️age
▫️genetic susceptibility 
▫️immunodeficient individual
▫️severe physical and emotional stress
▫️malnutrition
33
Q

Modes of transmission of infectious Agents:

A

▫️direct contact
▫️droplet transmission
▫️airborne transmission
▫️vector transmission