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Flashcards in CH5 - Infection Deck (33)
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1

A state of tissue destruction resulting from invasion of microorganisms:

Infection

2

Any microorganisms that can cause a disease ➡️ must be able to bind to human host cells

▫️directly destroys host cells
▫️interferes host cells metabolic capabilities
▫️exposes host cell to toxins

Pathogens

3

pathogenicity- qualities that allow microorganism to promote a disease.

▫️virulence
▫️infectivity
▫️toxigenicity
▫️antigenicity
▫️antigenic variability
▫️pathogenic defense mechanisms

4

The majority of _____ are harmless to humans and may even be beneficial to our lives ➡️ could not survive w/o them

▫️antibiotic
▫️insulin
▫️food industry: in bread making, yogurt, cheese

Microorganisms

5

The beneficial population of microbes (bacteria, viruses, Protozoa) that live in and on our bodies
▫️nose, pharynx
▫️mouth, colon, rectum
▫️vagina
▫️distal urethra and perineum

Normal flora

6

Manifestation of infection - Systemic

▫️fever
▫️weakness
▫️headache
▫️malaise
▫️anorexia
▫️nausea

7

Manifestation of infection - Local

▫️heat
▫️incapacitation
▫️Pain
▫️edema
▫️redness
▫️lymphadenitis
▫️purulent exudate

8

Classes of microorganisms

▫️bacteria
▫️viruses
▫️Protozoa
▫️fungi

9

Sterile areas of the body:

▫️blood, CSF
▫️Lungs
▫️stomach
▫️ uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries
▫️bladder and kidneys

10

▫️A single-called microorganisms
▫️do not require living tissues to survive
▫️vary in size and shape
▫️divide by binary fission - can occur outside of host cells
Components: cell membrane, indiscrete nucleus, cytosol

Bacteria - a full living cell
(can essentially duplicate)

11

Living requirements of bacteria

▫️moisture
▫️food
▫️electrolyte balance
▫️adequate temperature
▫️adequate O2
▫️adequate pH
▫️adequate light

12

released from cell walls of bacteria when they are lysed.

Endotoxins

13

A unicellular organisms that do not require living tissue to survive. They vary in size, shape, and arrangement

Bacteria

14

A bacterium has one or two types of cell walls, which differ in chemical composition.

Gram-positive or gram-negative

15

Some bacteria secrete toxic substances, toxins, and enzymes.
Toxins consists of two types:

Exotoxins and endotoxins

16

A latent form of bacterium with coating that is highly resistant to heat and other adverse conditions. bacteria resume a vegetative state and reproduce.

Ex. Tetanus and botulism

Spores

17

Are produced by some bacteria and are a source of damage to the host tissues or cells. promote spread of infection

Ex: hemolysin

Enzymes

18

A non-living intracellular parasites -requires host cells to survive

▫️Viruses

19

Viruses consists of:

▫️protein coat or capsid (comes in many shapes sizes and undergoes change relatively quickly in the evolution of the virions)
▫️ genetic material (either DNA or RNA)

20

A large microorganisms found throughout environment
▫️on animals, plants, humans, food
▫️unicellular ➡️ yeast
▫️multicellular ➡️ moods and mushrooms

Fungi

21

Fungi infections are termed ?..

▫️mycoses or mycotic infections

22

Only few fungi are pathogenic, causing infection on the skin or mucous membranes. such as:

▫️pneumonia
▫️thrush mouth
▫️ring worm (scalp)
▫️vaginitis (candidiasis)
▫️athletes foot

23

Benefits of Fungi:

▫️major role in decomposition of dead matter, providing nutrients for other organisms
▫️antibiotic drugs (e.g. penicillin)
▫️food production (yogurt, bread)
▫️also keep bacteria, viruses at bay (ex.resident flora)

24

Complex unicellular organisms found in water, soil ➡️ important in food chain as producers and decomposers

Transmission occurs through contaminated food or water, sexual contact,mor a vector.

Protozoa

25

Common protozoal diseases:

▫️malaria
▫️traveler’s diarrhea
▫️dysentery

26

Phases of Acute infection:
🔺infection is established if host’s defense s are insufficient to destroy pathogens

1. Exposure
2. Incubation
3. Prodrome
4. Clinical illness
5. Convalescence

27

complications of infection:

▫️septicaemia
▫️chronic infection

28

Common Laboratory and Diagnostic test to Detect infection

1. WBC count
2. Serum antibody levels
3. Cultures
4. Sensitivities

29

elevation in WBC w/c may indicate an infectious process, often bacterial in origin

Leukocytosis

30

decrease in WBC, which may indicate a viral infection or a problem with suppression of WBC production

Leukopenia