CH.9 : Altered Acid-Base Balance Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology for PN > CH.9 : Altered Acid-Base Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH.9 : Altered Acid-Base Balance Deck (17)
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1

Arterial pH <7.35 = _____

Arterial pH >7.45 = ______

▫️acidosis

▫️alkalosis

2

3 main mechanisms of control of serum pH

▫️buffer pairs

▫️respiratory system

▫️kidneys

3

Plasma buffer systems:

▫️sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid system
▫️protein buffers
▫️potassium-hydrogen exchange

4

Is the majors ECF buffer
It is controlled by the respiratory system and the kidneys

Sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid system

5

Plasma protein buffers are:

▫️phosphate
▫️hemoglobin
▫️protein - various of these can pick up H+ from the blood
Can gain or release hydrogen easily

6

is an ionic exchange of H+ and K+ across the cell membrane

Potassium-hydrogen exchange

7

These buffer contributes to CO2 regulation

▫️Respiratory Buffer System

8

Renal buffer system is the regulation of:

▫️hydrogen elimination/ bicarbonate conservation
▫️tubular buffer systems (phosphate, ammonia- allows for excess acids to be eliminated in urine)
▫️potassium-hydrogen exchange (direct cation exchange)
▫️chloride-bicarbonate exchange (direct anion exchange)

9

To maintain a homeostatic blood pH, ratio of HCO3- : H2CO3 must be:

20 : 1

10

▫️It Is caused by an excessive loss of bicarbonate ions to buffer hydrogen
▫️⬆️production of acids caused by fasting, ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis
▫️renal disease or failure leading to ⬇️ excretion of acids or ⬇️ production of bicarbonate ions
▫️⬆️in chloride caused by excessive reabsorption from kidneys

Metabolic Acidosis

11

In _______ acidosis, hyperventilation helps maintain carbonic acid in order to restore acid-base balance.

Metabolic acidosis

12

In _______ acidosis, kidney excrete more H+ and reabsorb more HCO3-

Respiratory acidosis

13

_______ alkalosis- due to hyperventilation
▫️caused by anxiety, high fever, overdose of aspirin
▫️head injuries
▫️pregnancy
▫️onset of asthma attack

Respiratory alkalosis

14

_______ Alkalosis- increase in serum bicarbonate ions.
▫️loss of HCL from stomach from vomiting (causing loss of H+ and Cl-)
▫️hypokalemia
▫️excessive ingestion of antacids

Metabolic alkalosis

15

Effects of alkalosis- ⬆️ irritability of the nervous system

▫️restlessness, muscle twitching
▫️tingling and numbness of the fingers
▫️Tetany, seizures, coma

16

To compensation in metabolic alkalosis, _______ helps restore acid-base balance.

Hypoventilation

17

to compensate respiratory alkalosis, kidney excrete _______

less H+ and reabsorb less HCO3-