Ch_21_Protist_Evolution_and_Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch_21_Protist_Evolution_and_Diversity Deck (161)
1

Protists Domain and Kingdom

Eukarya
Protista

2

Protos Greek

first

3

most protists are unicellular, except this kind

algae

4

what type of "trophs" are protists

Heterotrophs, Autotrophs, Mixotrophs

5

Endosymbiosis

several eukaryotic organelles originated as symbiotic relationship with other single-celled organisms

6

possible origin of mitochrondria

ingestion of aerobic bacterium

7

possible origin of chloroplast

ingestion of cyanobacteria

8

evidence mitochondria/chloroplast originated from prokaryotes

similar:
structure,
size,
reproduction,
biochemistry,
genetic makeup

9

paraphyletic

no apparent common ancestor with all lineage in the same group

10

number of protist super-groups

6

11

supergroup

taxonomic group between Domain and Kingdom
attempts to create an inclusive lineage

12

T/F Generally Protists prefer moist environments

T

13

Amoeboid movement

psuedopodia extend and engulf

14

psuedo Greek

fake

15

pod Greek

foot

16

Protist movement

1) psuedopodia (Amoeboid)
2) Flagella
3) Cilia
4) slime excretion and glide (diatoms, malaria)

17

long rotating organelle used for protist movement

flagella

18

short hair-like organelles that move in unison for protist movement

cilia

19

Protist nutrient acquisition

Heterotrophic
Autotrophic
Mixotropic

20

How to group Protists

1) Movement
2) nutrient acquisition

21

Alternation of Generations Introduction Concept

2 different life stages
diploid (2 n)
haploid (n)

22

Alternation of Generations flow (start at spores)

spores(n) -> mitosis -> gametophyte -> gametes -> fusion -> zygote (2n) -> sporophyte -> miosis -> spores

23

Protist Supergroups

Archaeplastida
Chromalveolata
Excavata
Amoebozoa

24

Archaeplastida traits

contain plastids for photosynthesis
photosynthetic organisms

25

Archaeaplastids

can think of as chloroplasts
derived from cyano-bacteria

26

Groups of Archaeplastida

Green Algae
Red Algae
Land Plants

27

Green Algae locations

ocean
freshwater habititats
snowbanks
moist land

28

Green Algae traits

photo-synthesizers
group of Archaeplastida
bottom of ocean food chain
major contributor to atmospheric Oxygen
most are unicellular

29

filamentous Green Algae

Spirogyra

30

colonial Green Algae

Volvox

31

multi-cellular Green Algae

Ulva

32

T/F Green Algae are always green

F, some have orange, red, or rust color pigments

33

Which Algae are plants most closely related to

Green Algae

34

Similar characteristics between plants and green algae

chlorophyll,
cell wall,
starch food storage

35

Volvox characteristics

colonial
loose association of independent cells
hollow sphere - many cells arranged in a single layer on its periphery

36

Volvox daughter budding

reproductive cells form new daughter colony within parental colony
daughters develop inside parent until enzyme dissolves part of wall to allow escope

37

Spirogyra location

surfaces of ponds and streams
prefers fast moving water

38

Spirogyra distinguishing characteristic

ribbon-like spiral chloroplasts

39

T/F Sprirogyra cell division occurs in one-plain producing end-to-end chains

T

40

How do Spirogyra form a zygote

2 strands unite in conjugation
exchange genetic material
form a diploid zygote

41

How does Spirogyra often survive the winter

as zygotes
divide by meiosis in Spring to form haploid strands

42

Ulva common name

Sea Lettuce

43

Ulva appearance

blade form

44

Ulva locations

SC coast

45

Ulva Alternation of generations

half of lifecycle as diploid sporophyte
half of lifecycle as gametophyte

46

Distinguish sporophite appearance from gametophyte appearance Ulva

Can't

47

Chara location

freshwater lakes and ponds

48

Most closely related green algae to plants

Chara, based on DNA data

49

Chara common name

Stoneworts

50

Chara/plant similarities

multicellular sex organs at nodes
cells of body originate from apical

51

Red Algae characteristics

Marine Multicellular Algae

52

Red Algae appearance

Most species branched/ feather ribbonlike appearance

53

Uses of Red Algae

Coralline algae: cell walls of calcium carbonate - coral reefs
Chondrus crispus: cells walls component of carrageen and chocolate stability
Geledium: source of agar for growing bacteria
Porphyra (nori): used for wrapping sushi

54

Chromalveolata graups

Stramenopiles
Alveolates

55

Stramenopiles types

Brown algae
diatoms
golden brown algae
water molds

56

Alveolate types

dinoflagellates
ciliates
apicomplexans

57

Why are brown algae brown?

contain fucoxanthin pigment

58

Why do brown algae have air bladders

keep blades close to surface for photosynthesis

59

brown algae uses

human food (high concentration of Iodine)
fertilizer

60

brown algae holdfast

structure near root to anchor algae

61

brown algae length

few cm to 100 m

62

Brown Algae examples

Laminaria - kelp
Fucus - rockweed
Macrocystis - giant kelp
Sargassum

63

Macrocystis common name

giant kelp

64

Macrocystis growth speed

2 ft/day

65

Macrocystis location

cooler waters with rocks
west coast of North America

66

Kelp forest

Macrocystis organisms aggregated and forming large floating canopies. Can be very extensive

67

Kelp ecosystem uses

food and habitat for marine organisms

68

Sargassum location

start in Caribbean
found also in Sargassum Sea

69

Why do Sargassum drift

start life with a holdfast, but break

70

Sargassum receptacle uses

produce sex cells

71

Sargasso Sea name root

floating mats of Sargassum on surface

72

Diatom group

Stramenopiles

73

Diatom shell material

Silicon (glass-like)

74

Diatom reproduction

reproduce asexually by mitosis until 30% of size
than reproduce sexually

75

Diatom abundance

phytoplankton - most abundant organism on Earth

76

Diatom movement

fibrils with raphes
mucus secreted out of raphes

77

Diatomaceous earth formation

diatoms die
sediment forms

78

Diatomaceous earth uses

kills fleas
breaks up fleas as glass

79

Golden Brown Algae group

Stramenopiles

80

Golden Brown Algae pigments

yellow-brown carotenoid pigments

81

Golden Brown Algae multi/uni?

unicellular

82

Golden Brown Algae number of flagella

2

83

Ochromonas capable of photosynthesis or phagocytosis

both

84

Ochromonas fresh water or marine

both

85

Water Molds group

Stramenopiles

86

Water molds location

fresh water

87

Water Molds characteristics

form furry growths
parasitize fish/insects
decompose remains

88

caused Irish potato famine of 1840s

Phytophthora (Water Mold)

89

Water Mold cell wall

cellulose

90

T/F Water Mold body filamentous

true

91

Water Mold reproduction

with 2n diploid motile spores (zoospores) with flagella

92

Saprolegnia

Water mold that attacks fish & amphibians

93

Dinoflagellates group

Alveolates

94

Dinoflagellates "troph"

photoautotrophic

95

Dinoflagellate bounded by

protective cellulose and silicate plates

96

Dinoflagellate number of flagella

2

97

Dinoflagellates that cause Red Tides

Gymnodinium
Gonyaulax

98

Dinoflagellates are an important source of

phytoplankton

99

Dinoflagellates reproduce asexually by

mitosis

100

Gonyaulax

Agent of Red tide
massive fish kills

101

Red tide

"powerful neurotoxin killing fish and causing paralytic shellfish poisoning"

102

Ciliate movement

use cilia

103

pellicle

supports cilia on Ciliates
similar to a protein underneath a membrane
firm on Ciliates

104

Ciliate ingestion

heterotrophic
ingests through gullet
expels through cytoproct pore

105

Ciliate nuclei types

Macronucleus
- controls normal metabolism
Micronuclei
- involved in sexual reproduction

106

Ciliate reproduction

Macronucleus disintegrates
micronucleus undergoes meiosis
2 ciliates exchange haploid micronucleui
2 micronuclei give rise to new macronucleus

107

Ciliate super-group

Alveolate

108

Apicomplexan super-group

Alveolate

109

Apicomplexan characteristics

Nonmotile, parasitic, sporeforming protozoa

110

causes most widespread type of malaria

Plasmodium vivax
most widespread human parasite

111

how Plasmodium vivax is transmitted

by female Anopheles mosquito
only females suck blood, used for egg production

112

Malaria infection flow

transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito
Sporozoites (juvenile form of Plasmodium vivax) infect liver
Merozoites enter blood/attack cells
red blood cells burst, releasing toxins

113

Malaria symptoms

chills/fever as red blood cells burst ad release toxins

114

Plasmodium group

Apicomplexan

115

Excavata characteristics

distinctive flagella
deep oral feeding grooves

116

Excavata subgroups

Euglenids
Parabasilids
Diplomonads
Kinetoplastids

117

Euglenids super-group

Excavata

118

Euglenids characteristics

flagellated, freshwater unicellular organisms
flexible protein pellicle
eye-spot for light spot
2 flagella - 1 long, 1 short

119

Euglenid "troph"

mixotroph, autotroph, heterotroph

120

Euglenid reproduction asexual or sexual

asexual

121

Diplomonads super group

Excavata

122

Diplomonad characteristics

single celled protozoans
2 nuclei
2 sets of flagella
"lack" mitochondria

123

intestinal Diplomonad that causes diarrhea

Giardia lamblia

124

Giardia survives outside host and is transmitted through polluted water and stomach through

Cysts

125

disease caused by Giardia lamblia

Beaver Fever

126

Parabasalid super-group

Excavata

127

Parabasalid characteristics

single celled protozoa
4 flagella
undulating membrane
lack mitochondria

128

Sexually transmitted Parabasalid that infects male & female reproductive organs

Trichomonas vaginalis

129

Parabasalid that live in termite intestines and digest wood

Trichonympha campanula

130

Kinetoplastid super-group

Excavata

131

Kinetoplastid characteristics

single-celled, flagellated protozoans
named for kinetoplasts

132

kinetoplast

large mass of DNA found in single mitochondrion

133

Kinetoplastid that causes African Sleeping Sickness

Trypanosoma brucei

134

Trypanosoma brucei transmission

Tsetse Fly
major cause of death in Africa

135

Trypanosoma cruzi

western version of Trypanosoma brucei

136

Ameibian Greek

to change

137

Zoa

animal

138

Ameobozoa sub-groups

Amoeboids
Slime molds
- plasmodial
- cellular

139

how Amoebas consume food

phagocytosis

140

cause of Amoebic Dysentery

Entamoeba histolytica

141

Plasmodial Slime Mold super-groups

Amoebozoa

142

Plasmodium

multi-nucleate cytoplasm

143

Plasmodial Slime Mold Characteristics

terrestrial decomposer
develops sporangia which produce spores by meiosis in dry conditions

144

When do Plasmodial Slime Mold survive until

moist conditions return

145

Plasmodial spore to plasmodium

spores released in moist conditions
each becomes haploid flagellated cell/amoeboid cell
2 cells fuse form a diploid zygote
zygote produces multinucleated plasmodium

146

Cellular Slime Mold super-group

Amoebozoa

147

Cellular Slime mold location

soil

148

Cellular Slime Mold food

bacteria and yeast

149

Cellular Slime Mold spore generation

food runs out
amoeboid cells aggregate into a pseudoplasmodium
spores survive until more favorable conditions
spores germinate & release amoeboid cells
begins asexual cycle

150

Ophisthokonta sub-groups

Animal
Fungi

151

Choanoflagellates super-group

Ophisthokonta

152

Choanoflagellates characteristics

closely resemble collar cells of sponges
unicellular and colonial forms
filter feeders
beat flagella to generate water currents

153

Rhizaria characteristics

Protists with threadlike pseudopods

154

Rhizaria sub-groups

Foraminiferans
Radiolarians

155

Foraminifera super-group

Rhizaria

156

Foram movement

cytoplasm form pseudopods

157

Foram skeleton

mineral skeleton made of calcium carbonate
external skeleton

158

Foram interesting facts

form the white cliffs of England
used for pyramid construction

159

Radiolarians super-group

Rhizaria

160

Radiolarian characteristics

all marine plankton
have tests made of glass-like silicon

161

why do Radiolarian have arm-like extensions that resemble spikes

increase surface area for buoyancy
capture prey