Chap 43 Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Chap 43 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chap 43 Deck (16):
1

Anthelmintic

A drug that destroys or prevents the development of parasitic worm (helminthic) infections. Also called antihelmintic or vermicide; notice that the terms for the drug categories are spelled with only one h, which appears in the second syllable of the term, whereas the term for worm infection (helminthic) is spelled with two h's, appearing in both the first and third syllables of the term

2

Antimalarial drugs

Drugs that destroy or prevent the development of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp_ in humans. ANtimalarial drugs are a subset of the broader category of antiprotozoal drugs

3

Antiprotozoal

A drug that destroys or prevents the development od protozoans in humans

4

Helminthic infections

Parasitic worm infections

5

Malaria

A widespread protozoal infectious disease caused by four species of the genus Plasmodium

6

Parasite

Any organism that feeds on another living organism (known as a host) in a way that results in varying degrees of harm to the host organism

7

Parasitic protozoans

Harmful protozoans that live on or in humans or animals and cause disease in the process

8

Protozoans

Single celled organisms that are the smallest and simplest members of the animal kingdom

9

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine

TX of malaria and other parasitic infections, such as amebiasis. Hydroxychloroquine is also used to tx RA and systemic lupus

10

Mefloquine

Management of mild to moderate acute malaria and for prevention if malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant organisms. Also used prophylactically by travelers to prevent malarial infection. Only available PO

11

Primaquine

Destroys the malarial parasites while they are in their exoerythrocytic phase. Available PO

12

Metronidazole

Used for tx of trichomoniasis, amebiasis, and giardiasis. Also, tx of anaerobic bacterial infections and antibiotic-induced pseudo membranous colitis

13

Chloroquine (Aralen) & hydroxychloroquine Mechanism of Action

Work by inhibiting deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) polymerase, enzymes essential to DNA and RNA synthesis by the parasite cells
Parasite protein synthesis is also disrupted
Raise pH within the parasite, interfering with the parasites ability to metabolize and use erythrocyte hemoglobin

14

Mefloquine (Lariam) Mechanism of Action

Believed to raise the pH within the parasite

15

Metronidazole (Flagyl) Mechanism of Action

Interferes with DNA, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death in susceptible organisms
Believed to directly kill protozoans by casing free-radical reactions that damage DNA and other vital biomolecules

16

Primaquine Mechanism of Action

Ability to bind to and alter parasitic DNA
Effective in the exoerythrocytuc phase