Chap 45 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chap 45 Deck (40):
1

Analogue

A chemical compound with a structure similar to that of another compound but differing from it with respect to some component

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Anaplasia

The absence of the cellular differentiation that is part of the normal cellular growth process

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Antineoplastic Drugs

Drugs used to treat cancer. Also called cancer drugs, anticancer drugs, cancer chemotherapy, and chemotherapy

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Benign

Denoting a neoplasm that is noncancerous and therefore not an immediate threat to life

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Cancer

A malignant neoplastic disease, the natural course of which is fatal

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Carcinomas

Malignant epithelial neoplasms that tend to invade surrounding tissue and metastasize to distant regions of the body

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Cell Cycle-Nonspecific

Denoting antineoplastic drugs that are cytotoxic in any phase of the cellular growth cycle

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Cell Cycle-Specific

Denoting antineoplastic drugs that are cytotoxic during a specific phase of the cellular growth cycle

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Clone

A cell or group of cells that is genetically identical to a given parent cell

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Differentiation

An important part of normal cellular growth in which immature cells mature into specialized cells

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Dose limiting Adverse Effects

Adverse effects that prevent an antineoplastic drug from being given in higher dosages, often restricting the effectiveness of the drug

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Emetic Potential

The potential of a drug to cause nausea and vomiting

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Extravasation

The leakage of any intravenously or intraarterially administered medication into the tissue space surrounding the vein or artery. Such an event can cause serious tissue injury, especially with antineoplastic drugs

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Gene Expression

How a cell expresses a receptor or gene; the process in which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a gene product

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Growth Fraction

The percentage of cells in mitosis at any given time

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Intrathecal

A route of drug injection through the theca of the spinal cord and into the subarachnoid space. This route is used to deliver certain chemotherapy medications to kill cancer cells in the central nervous system

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Leukemias

Malignant neoplasms of blood-forming tissues characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow cells with leukemic blasts resulting in abnormal numbers and forms of immature white blood cells in the circulation

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Lymphomas

Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid tissue

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Malignant

Tending to worsen and cause death; anaplastic, invasive, and metastatic

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Metastasis

The process by which a cancer spreads from the original site of growth to a new and remote part of the body

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Mitosis

The process of cell reproduction occurring in somatic (nonsexual) cells and resulting in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells containing the diploid (complete) number of chromosomes characteristic of the species

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Mitotic Index

The number of cells per unit (usually 1000 cells) undergoing mitosis during a given time

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Mutagen

A chemical or physical agent that induces or increases genetic mutations by causing changes in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

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Mutation

A permanent change in DNA that is transmissible to future cellular generations. Mutations can transform to normal cells into cancer cells

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Myelosuppression

Suppression of bone marrow function, which can result in dangerously reduced numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

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Nadir

Lowest point in any fluctuating value over time; for example, the lowest white blood cell count measured after the count has been depressed by chemotherapy

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Neoplasm

Any new and abnormal growth, specifically growth that is uncontrolled and progressive; a synonym for tumor. A malignant neoplasm or tumor is synonymous with cancer

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Nucleic Acids

Molecules of DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus of every cell (hence the name nucleic acid). Chromosomes are made up of DNA and encode all of the genes necessary for cellular structure and fashion

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Oncogenic

Cancer producing; often applied to tumor-inducing viruses

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Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Symptom complexes arising in patients with cancer that cannot be explained by local or distant spread of their tumors

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Primary Lesion

The original site of growth of a tumor

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Sarcomas

Malignant neoplasms of the connective tissues arising in bone, fibrous, fatty, muscular, synovial, vascular, or neural tissue often first presenting as painless swellings

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Tumor

A new growth of tissue characterized by a progressive, uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Tumors can be solid (e.g. brain tumor) or circulating (e.g. leukemia or lymphoma), and benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Circulating tumors are more precisely called hematologic tumors or hematologic malignancies. A tumor is also called a neoplasm

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Tumor Lysis Syndrome

A common metabolic complication of chemotherapy for rapidly growing tumors. It is characterized by the presence of excessive cellular waste products and electrolytes, including uric acid, phosphate, and potassium, and by reduced serum calcium levels

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Asparaginase (Elspar) Mechanism of Action

G1 (first gap phase or postmitotic phase- enzymes necessary for DNA synthesis are produced): Antineoplastic Enzymes
It is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the amino acid asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia
Leukemic cells are then unable to synthesize the asparagine required for the synthesis of DNA and proteins needed for cell survival

36

Cytarabine (ara-C, Cytosar) Mechanism of Action

S (DNA synthesis phase- DNA synthesis takes place, from DNA strand separation to replication of each strand to create duplicate DNA molecules): Antimetabolites- pyrimidine analogs
A synthetic analogue of cytosine
Incorporate themselves into the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of DNA and RNA and thereby interrupting the synthesis of both of these nucleic acids

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Etoposide (VP-16, generic) Mechanism of Action

G2 (second gap phase or premitotic phase- RNA and sepcialized proteins are made): Epipodophyllotoxin derivatives
Exert cytotoxic effects by inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II, which causes breaks in DNA strands
Work during the late S phase and the G2 phase of the cell cycle

38

Methotrexate Mechanism of Action

S (DNA synthesis phase- DNA synthesis takes place, from DNA strand separation to replication of each strand to create duplicate DNA molecules): Antimetabolites- folate analogs
Inhibits the action of dihydrofolate reductase, an enzyme responsible for converting folic acid to its active form, folate, which is needed for the synthesis of DNA
Results in DNA that is not produced and the cell dies
Immunosuppressive activity- can inhibit lymphocyte multiplication

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Paclitaxel (Taxol) Mechanism of Action

M (mitosis phase- divided into four subphases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase; cel divides (reproduces) into two daughter cells): Taxanes
Act in the late G2 phase and M phase of the cell cycle
Work by causing the formation of nonfunctional microtubules, which halts mitosis during metaphase

40

Vincristine Mechanism of Action

M (mitosis phase- divided into four subphases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase; cel divides (reproduces) into two daughter cells): Vinca Alkaloids
Bind to the protein tubulin during the metaphase of mitosis (M phase)
Prevents the assembly of key structures called microtubules
Results in the dissolution of other important structures known as mitotic spindles
Cells cannot reproduce properly
Results in inhibition of cell division and cell death