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Flashcards in Chap 49 Deck (25):

Active Immunizations

A type of immunization that causes development of a complete and long-lasting immunity to a certain infection through exposure of the body to the associated disease antigen; it can be natural active immunization (i.e. having the disease) or artificial active immunization (i.e. receiving a vaccine or toxoid)


Active Immunizing Drugs

Toxoids or vaccines that are administered to a host to stimulate host production of antibodies



Immunoglobulin molecules that have an antigen-specific amino acid sequence and are synthesized by the humoral immune system (B cells) in response to exposure to a specific antigen. Their purpose is to attack and destroy molecules of this antigen


Antibody Titer

The amount of an antibody needed to react with and neutralize a given volume or amount of a specific antigen



Substances, usually proteins and foreign to a host, that stimulate the production of antibodies and that react specifically with those antibodies. Examples of antigens include bacterial exotoxins and viruses. An allergen (e.g. dust, pollen, mold) is an antigen that can produce an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction or allergy



A serum that contains antibodies. It is usually obtained from an animal that has been immunized against a specific antigen



An antiserum against a toxin (or toxoid). It is most often purified antiserum obtained from animals (usually horses) by injection of a toxin or toxoid so that antibodies to the toxin (i.e. antitoxin) can be collected from the animals and used to provide artificial passive immunity to humans exposed to a given toxin (e.g. tetanus immunoglobulin)



An antiserum against a venom (poison produced by an animal) used to treat humans or other animals that have been envenomed (e.g. snakebite, spider bite, or scorpion sting)


Biologic Antimicrobial Drugs

Substances of biologic origin used to prevent, treat, or cure infectious diseases (e.g. vaccines, toxoids, immunoglobulins). These drugs are often simply referred to as biologics. However, biologics also refers to drugs of bioterrorism (e.g. anthrax spores, smallpox virus) depending on the context



The use of infectious biologic or chemical agents as weapons for human destruction


Booster Shot

A repeat dose of antigen, such as a vaccine or toxoid, which is usually administered in an amount smaller than that used in the original immunization. It is given to maintain the immune response of a previously immunized patient at, or return the response to, a clinically effective level


Cell Mediated Immune System

The immune response that is mediated by T cells (as opposed to B cells, which produce antibodies). T cells mount their immune response through activities such as the release of cytokines (chemicals that stimulate other productive immune functions) as well as through direct cytotoxicity (e.g. phagocytosis of an antigen)


Herd Immunity

Resistance to a disease on the part of an entire community or population because a large proportion of its members are immune to the disease


Immune Response

A cascade of biochemical events that occurs in response to entry of an antigen (foreign substance) into the body; key process of the immune response include phagocytosis (“eating of cells”) of foreign microorganisms and synthesis of antibodies that react with specific antigens to inactivate them. Immune response centers around the blood but may also involve the lymphatic system and the reticuloendothelial system



The induction of immunity by administration of a vaccine or toxoid (active immunization) or antiserum (passive immunization)


Immunizing Biologics

Toxoids, vaccines, or immunoglobulins that are targeted against specific infectious microorganisms or toxins



Glycoproteins synthesized and used by the humoral immune system (B cells) to attack and kill all substances foreign to the body. The term is synonymous with immune globulins


Passive Immunization

A type of immunization in which immunity to infection occurs by injecting a person with antiserum or concentrated antibodies that directly give he host the means to fight off an invading microorganism (artificial passive immunization). The host’s immune system therefore does not have to manufacture these antibodies. This process also occurs when antibodies pass from mother to infant during breastfeeding or through the placenta during pregnancy (natural passive immunization)


Passive Immunizing Drugs

Drugs containing antibodies or antitoxins that can kill or inactivate pathogens by binding to the associated antigens. These are directly injected into a person (host) and provide that person with the means to fend off infection, bypassing the host’s own immune system



Relating to or containing a combination of genetic material from two or more organisms. Such genetic recombination is one of the key methods of biotechnology and is often used to manufacture immunizing drugs and various other medications


Reticuloendothelial System

Specialized cells located in the liver, spleen, lymphatics, and bone marrow that remove miscellaneous particles from the circulation, such as aging antibody molecules



Any poison produce by a plant, animal, or microorganism that is highly toxic to other living organisms



– Bacterial exotoxins that are modified or inactivated (by chemicals or heat) so that they are no longer toxic but can still bind to host B cells to stimulate the formation of antitoxin; toxoids are often used in the same manner as vaccines to promote artificial active immunity in humans. They are one type of active immunizing drug (e.g. tetanus toxoid)



Suspensions of live, attenuated, or killed microorganisms that can promote artificially induced active immunity against a particular microorganism. They are another type of active immunizing drug (e.g. tetanus vaccine)



A poison that is secreted by an animal (e.g. snake, insect, or spider)