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Flashcards in Chap 47 Deck (36):
1

Adjuvant

A nonspecific immunostimulant that enhances overall function, rather than stimulating the function of a specific immune system cell or cytokine through specific chemical reactions

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Antibodies

Immunoglobulin molecules that have the ability to bind to and inactivate antigen molecules through formation of an antigen-antibody complex. This process serves to inactivate foreign antigens that enter the body and are capable of causing disease

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Antigen

A biologic or chemical substance that is recognized as foreign by the body’s immune system

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Arthritis

Inflammation of one or more joints

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Autoimmune Disorder

A disorder that occurs when the body’s tissues are attacked by its own immune system

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B Lymphocytes (B cells)

Leukocytes of the humoral immune system that develop into plasma cells, and then produce the antibodies that bind to and inactivate antigens. B cells are one of the two principal types of lymphocytes; T lymphocytes are the other.

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Biologic Response Modifying Drugs

A broad class of drugs that includes hematopoietic drugs and immunomodulating drugs. Often referred to as biologic response modifiers (BRMs), they alter the body’s response to diseases such as cancer as well as autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Examples are cytokines (e.g., interleukin, interferons), monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines. They are also called biomodulators or immunomodulating drugs. Biologic response-modifying drugs may be adjuvants, immunostimulants, or immunosuppressants

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Cell-Mediated Immunity

Collective term for all immune responses that are mediated by T lymphocytes (T cells). Also called cellular immunity. Cell-mediated immunity acts in collaboration with humoral immunity

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Colony Stimulating Factors

Cytokines that regulate the growth, differentiation, and function of bone marrow stem cells

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Complement

Collective term for about 20 different proteins normally present in plasma that assist other immune system components (e.g. B cells and T cells) in mounting an immune response

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Cytokines

The generic term for nonantibody proteins released by specific cell populations (e.g. activated T cells) on contact with antigens. Cytokines act as intercellular mediators of an immune response

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Cryotoxic T cells

differentiated T cells that can recognize and lyse (rupture) target cells that have foreign antigens on their surfaces. These antigens are recognized by the corresponding antigen receptors that are expressed (displayed) on the cytotoxic T-cell surface. Also called natural killer cells

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Differentiation

The process of cellular development from a simplified into a more specialized cellular structure. In hematopoiesis, it refers to the multistep process involved in the maturation of blood cells

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Disease modifying Antirheumatic Drugs (DMARDS)

Medications used in the treatment of rheumatic diseases that have the potential to arrest or slow the actual disease process instead of providing only anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects

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Hematopoiesis

Collective term for all of the body’s processes originating in the bone marrow that result in the formation of various types of blood components (adjective; hematopoietic). It includes the three main processes of differentiation: erythropoiesis (formation of red blood cells, or erythrocytes), leucopoiesis (formation of white blood cells, or leukocytes), and thrombopoiesis (formation of platelets, or thrombocytes).

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Humoral Immunity

Collective term for all immune responses that are mediated by B cells, which ultimately work through the production of antibodies against specific antigens. Humoral immunity acts in collaboration with cell-mediated immunity

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Immunoglobulins

Complex immune system glycoproteins that bind to and inactivate foreign antigens. The term is synonymous with immune globulins

18

Immunomodulating Drugs

Collective term for various subclasses of biologic response-modifying drugs that specifically or nonspecifically enhance or reduce immune responses. The three major types of imunomodulators, based on mechanism of action, are adjuvants, immunostimulants, and immunosuppressants

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Immunostimulant

A drug that enhances immune response through specific chemical interactions with particular immune system components. An example is interleukin-2

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Immunosuppressant

A drug that reduces immune response through specific chemical interactions with particular immune system components. An example is cyclosporine

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Interferons

One type of cytokine that promotes resistance to viral infection in uninfected cells and can also strengthen the body’s immune response to cancer cells

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Leukocytes

The collective term for all subtypes of white blood cells. Leukocytes include the granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). Some monocytes also develop into tissue macrophages

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Lymphokine Activated Killer (LAK) cell

Cytotoxic T cells that have been activated by interleukin-2 and therefore have a stronger and more specific response against cancer cells

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Lymphokines

Cytokines that are produced by sensitive T lymphocytes on contact with antigen particles

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Memory Cells

Cells involved in the humoral immune system that remember the exact characteristics of a particular foreign invader or antigen for the purpose of expediting immune response in the event of future exposure to this antigen

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Monoclonal

Denoting a group of identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell

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Plasma Cells

Cells derived from B cells that are found in the bone marrow, connective tissue, and blood. They produce antibodies

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Rheumatism

General term for any of several disorders characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures, especially joints and related structures

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T Helper Cells

Cells that promote and direct actions of various other cells of the immune system

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T Lymphocytes (T cells)

Leukocytes of the cell-mediated immune system. Unlike B cells, they are not involved in the production of antibodies but instead occur in various cell subtypes (e.g. T helper cells, T suppressor cells, and cytotoxic T cells). They act through direct cell-to-cell contact or through production of cytokines that guide the functions of other immune system components (e.g. B cells, antibodies)

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T Suppressor Cells

Cells that regulate and limit the immune response, balancing the effects of T helper cells

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Tumor Antigens

Chemical compounds expressed on the surrounding faces of tumor cells. They signal to the immune system that these cells do not belong in the body, labeling the tumor cells as foreign

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Aldesleukin (Proleukin) Mechanism of Action

Acts indirectly to stimulate or restore immune response
Binds to receptor sites on T cells, which stimulates the T cells to multiply
Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells are a result, which recognize and destroy only cancer cells and ignore normal cells

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Filgrastim (Neupogen) Mechanism of Action

Colony stimulating factor
Stimulates progenitor cells for the subset of WBC's (leukocytes) known as granulocytes (including basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils)

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Oprelvekin (Neumega) Mechanism of Action

Platelet promoting drug
Classified as an interleukin, namely interleukin-11 (IL-11)
Stimulates the bone marrow cells, specifically megakaryocytes that eventually give rise to platelets

36

Sargramostim (Leukine) Mechanism of Action

Colony stimulating factor
Works by stimulating the bone marrow precursor cells that synthesize both granulocytes (basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils) and the phagocytic (cell-eating) cells known as monocytes, some of which become macrophages