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1

Dna is encoded as a specific sequence of letters along the length of a molecule

Each unit of information is discrete (one of 4 letters in the dna alphabet)

Dna is one-dimensional and digital

2

Genes

Dna that encodes protein or a particular type of rna

Basic units of biological information (heredity)

3

Chromosomes

Organized structures containing dna and proteins that package and manage the storage, duplication, expression & evolution of Dna

4

Genome

Dna within the entire collection of chromosomes in each cell

5

Organisms change over time
Move
Adapt
Use sources of energy and matter to grow

Metabolism

6

Large polymers composed of hundreds to thousands of amino acid subunits in long chains

Proteins
20 amino acid's order determines protein

7

Amino acid

Basic amino group
& acidic hydroxyl group

8

Rna

Adenine, uracil.
Uricil replaces thiamine, Less stable than dNA less diverse than protein so intermediate, Read in triplet, Complementarity to dna. May have been the 1st information processing molecule. Can fold into 3-d and catalyze chemical processes, but do not have the # of subunits (20 in protien) so less capacity and diversity.

9

Pax6 gene

Main control switch for initiating Eye development in fruit flies and humans (mice and insects 2)

10

Evolution of new genes

Duplication and divergence

11

Expressed, protein coding region of a gene,
1% of the genome

Exon or exons

12

Dna that does not code for a protein

Intron

13

The evolution of complexity is based on... Page 7 essay question

Hierarchic organization of the information encoded in chromosomes
Gene families and gene super families (immune system)
&
Rapid change of regulatory networks that specify how a gene behaves

14

How new functions evolve

Gene duplication followed by divergence of copies

15

Rapid diversification of genomes

Reshuffling of exons

16

Generates evolutionary change

gene regulation (where and when and to what degree a gene is expressed)

17

genetic dissection

Inactivate a gene in a model organism and observe the consequences (make a conclusion about the functions of a gene product) knock out nice

18

Genomics

The entire collection of chromosomes in each cell of an organism, 24 kinds of chromosomes, 30,000 genes

19

Conditional state arising because a gene interacts with environmental factors that affects the genes activation

Various forms of other genes modify the expression of said gene

Predisposition

20

Act prohibiting insurance companies and employers from discrimination on the basis of genetic tests

2008 genetic information nondiscrimination act

21

G-c and a-t base pairing in dan through hydrogen bonds

Complementarity

22

Dna alphabet

G,C
A,T
Guanine, cytosine
Adenine, thymine

23

The way genes transmit physiological, anatomical, and behavioral traits from parent to offspring

Heredity

24

The science of heredity, examination of how organisms pass biological information on to their progeny and how they use it in their lifetimes

Genetics

25

Inferred genetic laws that allowed him to make verifiable predictions about which traits would appear, disappear and reappear and in which generations

Devised a hypothesis that observable traits are determined by independent units invisible to the naked eye

Gregor Mendel

26

1. Variation is widespread in nature
2. Observable variation is essential for following genes from generation to generation
3. Variation is not distributed by chance
4. Laws apply to all sexually reproducing organisms

Four themes in mendel's work

27

Purposeful control over mating by choice of parents for the next generation

Canine lupus familiaris

Artificial selection

28

Moravian sheep breeders society:

What is inherited?
How is it inherited?
What is the role of chance in heredity?

...Sent Mendel to the university of Vienna

Abbot Cyril napp

29

One parent contributes most to an offsprings inherited features,
Blended inheritance: parental traits become mixed and forever changed in offspring (wouldn't see skipped generations if that were true)

Misconceptions about heredity

30

Chose pisum sativum.
Examined clear cut alternative forms of particular traits.
Collected and perpetuated lines of peas that bred true.
Carefully controlled matings.
He worked with large numbers of plants and made predictions based on models.
Focused on seeds in order to observe many more individuals in a limited space.

What Mendel did differently