Exam III Review Organellar Inheritance Flashcards Preview

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Membrane-bound organelle that converts energy derived from glucose and other nutrient molecules into ATP. Each cell has many. They can grow fuse and divide. And outer membrane surrounds and inner membrane folded into cristae. Multi subunit enzyme complexes carry out oxidative phosphorylase shin. They have their own DNA located in the matrix.


have 37 jeans encoding transfer RNA and rRNA and proteins for oxidative phosphorylation. No Intron's. Some jeans even overlap. Both strands of DNA are transcribed.

Characteristics of mitochondria that support the Endosymbiotic theory


Mitochondrial DNA some Intron's and more nucleotides between jeans. Mitochondrial DNA can vary by species some circular some linear. Trypanosoma and leishmania have single mitochondrion with interlocking minicircles and maxicircles

KenetoPlast DNA network


Maxicircles contain protein coding genes but sequence does not exactly match corresponding mRNAs. RNA editing converts pre-mRNA to mature mRNAs. Minicircles encode guide RNAs and editosome uses these to add or delete uricils. RNA editing in plants and animals. Amino acid's are slightly different than in human mitochondrial genetic codes.

Mitochondrial genetic code. Translation in mitochondria occurs more like translation in bacteria.


Have inner and outer membrane surrounding stroma with CPDNA. Grana stacks of thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll and other light absorbing molecules as well as the photosynthetic electron transport chain.



More genes than mitochondrial DNA. Have Introns. Some circular others linear or branch. Each chloroplast contains 15 to 20 copies of this.

Chloroplast genomes


store Energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates through this process.



Jean Gun. Created by Biolistic transformation. Small metal particles are coated with DNA then shot into cells. DNA rarely enters the chloroplast and recombines to produce a plant. May be a better way to produce transgenic crops so transgenes cannot be spread through pollen only eggs.

TransPlastomic plant


Oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis require subunits for cytochrome c oxidase. Ribosomal proteins are encoded for by the cell.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts do not carry genes for all the proteins they need to function and replace they must be provisioned with molecules imported from other parts of the cell


1. Lynn Margulis. 2. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA which replicates independently of the cell cycle. 3. DNA is not organized into nucleosomes. 4. N-formyl methionine & tRNAfmet are used in translation. 5. Inhibitors of bacterial translation block mitochondria and chloroplasts translation. 6.Comparisons of ribosomal are any gene sequences suggest mitochondrial genomes derived from gram-negativeNonsulfur purple bacteria while chloroplasts come from cyanobacteria.

Endosymbiont theory


Coral correns reported that 4 o'clock's can have green or variegated leaves. It was always inherited from the mother (maternal inheritance). The genes that control this phenotype are found in chloroplasts.

Non-menDelian inheritance


Organelles inherited from both parents.

Byparental inheritance


Organelles inherited from one parent either maternal or paternal. usually maternal.

Uniparental inheritance


Female gametes may be much larger so zygote received many maternal organelles and few paternal organelles. Paternal organelles may be actively excluded or destroyed. Paternal organelles may segregate into non-embryonic cells.

Maternal inheritance


Cells contain only one type of organelle genome.



Cells contain mixture of organelle genomes.



hypomorphic mutations in any of three mitochondrial jeans, each of which encodes a different subunit of NADH dehydrogenase the first enzyme in the electron transport pathway. Maternal inheritance, mitochondrial disease.

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy


Caused by loss of function mutations in mitochondrial transfer RNA jeans. Affects the translation of all mitochondrial messenger RNA's. Homoplasmic cells could not survive so all affected individuals are heteroplasmic. Severity of the phenotype depends on percentage of mutant mitochondrial DNA. Maternal inheritance. Not all children are affected. Affected to different degrees. Hi energy requirement tissues are less tolerant of the mutation.

Myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fiber (merrf) disease