Exam III Review Beyond The Individual gene And Genome Chapter 20 Flashcards Preview

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1

The total of all alleles carried in all members of a population

Gene pool

2

Only one allele

Monomorphic

3

More than one allele

Polymorphic

4

Proportion of all total individuals in a population that have particular phenotype

Phenotype frequency

5

Proportion of all total individuals in a population that carry a particular genotype

Genotype frequency

6

Proportion of gene copies in a population that are of a given allele type

Allele frequency

7

One. The population has an infinite number of individuals. Two. Individuals mate at random. Three. No new mutations appear. Four. No migration into or out of the population. Five. Genotypes have no affect on ability to survive and transmit alleles to the next generation.

Hardy Weinberg assumptions

8

A group of interbreeding individuals of a single species living in the same time and place

Population

9

p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
p + q = 1

Hardy Weinberg proportions

10

Combining DNA indexing system. 13 unlinked highly variable simple sequence repeat loci.

Codis

11

Computer program that uses a random number generator to choose an outcome for each probablistic event, i.e. Mating between individuals in a population. Population size is kept constant. Each run represents a possible pathway of genetic drift

Monte Carlo simulation

12

A change in allele frequency as a consequence of the randomness of inheritance due to sampling error from one generation to the next

Genetic drift

13

Loss of an allele from the population

Extinction

14

Only one allele remains in the population

Fixation

15

A few individuals separate from a larger population and establish a new population that is isolated from the original

Founder effects

16

Large proportion of individuals die often from environmental disturbances or disease

Population bottlenecks

17

Variant DNA sequence in and individuals genome that was not present in either parent

Mutation

18

Mutation that disrupts important functions

Deleterious mutation

19

Mutations that provide a selective advantage

Beneficial mutations

20

Mutations without benefit or harm, most mutations

Neutral mutations

21

Mutation rates appear to be relatively constant so genetically isolated populations accumulate DNA differences at roughly constant rate. Method to determine how long ago populations diversion from a common ancestor using differences in their DNA

Molecular clock

22

An individual's relative ability to survive (viability) and transmit it's jeans to the next generation, reproductive success. Cannot be measured within a single individual. Can be measured by considering all individuals of the same genotype.

Fitness. W ranges from 1 (all individuals survive to reproduce) to 0 (no individuals survive to reproduce)

23

The process that progressively eliminates individuals whose fitness is lower. individuals whose fitness is higher survive and become the parents of the next generation.

Natural selection

24

Recessive lethal alleles do not cause death in the heterozygous form because a certain threshold of protein output is maintained. In the homozygous form, the protein output does not meet the threshold, causing death.

Recessive lethal alleles

25

Heterozygotes have the highest fitness

Heterozygote advantage

26

Maintains genetic polymorphisms

Balancing selection

27

In The absence of the selective agent, resistance is subject to negative selection. mosquitoes

Fitness cost

28

DNA maternally derived. One most recent common ancestor

Mitochondrial DNA

29

Paternally derived. One most recent common ancestor

Y chromosome

30

Modern humans originated in Africa. African populations show much greater DNA sequence diversity then do populations in other parts of the world. non-Africans all share a more recent common ancestor for all genomic regions than do Africans.

Out of Africa hypothesis