Final Exam Genetics Flashcards Preview

Genetics > Final Exam Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Genetics Deck (155)
Loading flashcards...
1

Heritable alterations in DNA sequence

Mutations

2

Locations on a chromosome

Loci

3

An individual with two different alleles at the same locus is

Heterozygous

4

For complete dominance the phenotype seen in a heterozygous individual is the result of

Dominant allele

5

And allele who's phenotype is not expressed in a heterozygote

Recessive allele

6

A cross between true breeding parents that differ at only one trait is a

Mono hybrid cross 3 to 1

7

Cross between parents that differ into traits 9:3:3:1

Dihybrid cross

8

Used to determine the genotype of one showing a dominant phenotype by mating with individual showing recessive phenotype. 1:1 or all dominant.
Also, a cross between an individual of known genotype to a homozygous recessive individual.

Test cross

9

Cross an F1 to an individual with an identical genotype to the parent or the actual parent

Back cross

10

1:2:1

Incomplete dominance. When an F1 hybrid does not resemble either true breeding parent. Intermediate phenotype where both alleles contribute to the phenotype. Pink flowers.
AaxAa

11

3:1

Complete dominance. AaxAa

12

9:3:4 AaBb x AaBb

Recessive epistasis. Case of epistasis in which the epistatic allele is recessive. labs. When the presence of two recessive alleles at one gene mask the effects of the alleles at a second Jean.

13

The effects of a dominant allele at one gene hide the effects of the allele at another Gene

Dominant epistasis.

14

9:7 AaBb x AaBb at least one dominant allele is necessary, genes working in tandem to produce a particular trait. Purple flowers in sweet peas A-B-

Complementary Gene action

15

Both traits show up equally in the heterozygote in the F1, in the in the F2 1:2:1. Blood group alleles (a plus B sugars) AB blood type

Codominance

16

Phenomenon in which a single gene determines a number of distinct and seemingly unrelated characteristics.

Plieotropy

17

Alternate forms of a gene are called

Alleles

18

Occurs in individuals who have inherited two recessive allele of the H Jean and do not produce the H carbohydrate that is precursor to A and B antigens. They may possess either or both alleles but are unable to express them. Looks type O. Recessive epistasis.

Bombay phenotype

19

A trait determined by more than one gene, or a gene and the environment

Multi-factorial

20

Phenomenon in which a single gene determines A number of distinct and seemingly unrelated characteristics. More than one effect.

Plieotropy

21

Indicates how many members of a population with a particular genotype show expected phenotype.

Percent penetrance

22

The degree or intensity with which a particular genotype is expressed

Expressivity

23

Process in which heterozygosity for loss of function mutant recessive allele for two different genes that affects the same pathway produces normal phenotype

Complementation

24

Condition in females caused by the presence of only one X chromosome

Turner syndrome

25

A condition caused by the presence of multiple X chromosomes in males.

Klinefelter syndrome

26

Tetratypes

Yeast with four different spores in an ascus

27

A tetrad that contains four parental class haploid cells. 2 one parent 2 the other parent

Parental ditypes

28

A fungal tetrad containing for recombinant spores

Non-parental ditypes

29

The prevention of the second crossover in a pair of homologous chromosomes

Interference

30

Can lead to twin spots and form a genetic mosaicism

Mitotic recombination