Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 100A > Chapter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31):
1

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

2

Critical thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

3

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events

4

Hypothesis

a testable prediction often implied by a theory

5

Operational defintion

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what as intelligence test measures

6

replication

repeating the essences of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

7

Case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

8

survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of a particular group, usually be questioning a representative, random sample of the group

9

population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

10

random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

11

naturalistic observation

observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

12

correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well wither factor predicts the other

13

correlation coefficient

a statisical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

14

scatterplots

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represent the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationsip between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)

15

illusory correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists

16

experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variables) by random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control there relevant factors

17

random assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups

18

double-blind procedures

an experimental prodecure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo

19

placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

20

experimental group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

21

control group

in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effects of the treatment

22

independent variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

23

dependent variable

the outcome factor, the variable that many change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

24

mode

the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

25

mean

the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing the number of scores

26

median

the middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it

27

range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

28

standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

29

normal curve

(normal distribution) a symmetrial, bell-shapes curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer nears the extremes

30

statistical significance

a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

31

culture

the enduring behaviours, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next