Flashcards in Chapter 1 Deck (31):

1

## Hindsight bias

### the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

2

## Critical thinking

### thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

3

## Theory

### an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours or events

4

## Hypothesis

### a testable prediction often implied by a theory

5

## Operational defintion

### a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what as intelligence test measures

6

## replication

### repeating the essences of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

7

## Case study

### an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

8

## survey

### a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of a particular group, usually be questioning a representative, random sample of the group

9

## population

### all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

10

## random sample

### a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

11

## naturalistic observation

### observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

12

## correlation

### a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well wither factor predicts the other

13

## correlation coefficient

### a statisical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)

14

## scatterplots

### a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represent the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationsip between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation)

15

## illusory correlation

### the perception of a relationship where none exists

16

## experiment

### a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process (the dependent variables) by random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control there relevant factors

17

## random assignment

### assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting difference between those assigned to the different groups

18

## double-blind procedures

### an experimental prodecure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or placebo

19

## placebo effect

### experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

20

## experimental group

### in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

21

## control group

### in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effects of the treatment

22

## independent variable

### the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied

23

## dependent variable

### the outcome factor, the variable that many change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

24

## mode

### the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

25

## mean

### the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing the number of scores

26

## median

### the middle score in a distribution, half the scores are above it and half are below it

27

## range

### the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

28

## standard deviation

### a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

29

## normal curve

### (normal distribution) a symmetrial, bell-shapes curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer nears the extremes

30

## statistical significance

### a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

31