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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (60):
1

sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment

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perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events

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bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information

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top-bottom processing

information processing guided by high-level mental processes, as when we construct perception drawing on our experience and expectations

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psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them

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absolute threshold

the min stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time

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signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experiences, expectations, motivation, and level-of-fatigue

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priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain association this predisposing on'e perception or response

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difference threshold

the min difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. we experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (or jnd)

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weber's law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant min percentage (rather that a constant amount)

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sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

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transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another

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wavelength

the distance form the peak of one light/sound wave to the peak of the next

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hue

the dimension of colour that is determined by the wavelength of light

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intensity

the amount of energy in a light/sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amplitude

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pupil

the adjustable opening in the centre of the eye where light enters

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iris

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the coloured portions of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening

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lens

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina

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retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information

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accommodation

the process by which the eye's lens change shape to focus near or far objects on the retina

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rods

retinal receptors that detect back, which and grey; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision

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cones

retinal receptors cells that are concentrated near the centre of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. the cones detect fine detail and give rise to colour sensations

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optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

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blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a blind sport because no receptor cells are located there

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fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around where the eye's cones cluster

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feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement

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parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for any functions, including vision

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youth-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-colour) theory

the theory that the retina contains three different colour receptors, (one most sensitive to is red, one to green, and one to blue) which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any colour

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opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enables colour vision. ex) some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green

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audition

the sense or act of hearing

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frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a pint in a given time

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pitch

a tone's experience highness or lowness; depends on frequency

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middle ear

the chamber between the ear drug and cochlea contain three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window

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cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound wave trigger nerve impulses

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inner ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs

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place theory

in hearing, the theory that links that the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated

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frequency theory

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve implies traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tine, thus enabling is to sense its pitch

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conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

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sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness

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cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes thread into the cochlea

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kinethesis

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

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vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance

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gate-control theory

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological 'gate' that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. the 'gate' is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibres and is closed by activity in larger fibres or by information coming from the brain

44

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste

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gestalt

an organized whole. gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful words

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figure-ground

the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground)

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grouping

the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

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depth perception

the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are 2D; allows us to judge distance

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visual cliff

a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals

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binocular cues

depth cues, such as disparity, that depends on the use of two eyes

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retinal disparity

a binocular cue for perceiving depth. by comparing images form the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance - greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object

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monocular cues

depth cues, such as interposition an diner perspective, available to either eye alone

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phi phenomenon

an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession

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perceptual constancy

perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and colour) even as illumination and retinal images change

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colour constancy

perceiving familiar objects as having consistent colour, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the objects

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perceptual adaption

in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field

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perceptual set

a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another

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human factors psychology

a branch of psychology that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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extrasensory perception (ESP)

the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition

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parapsychology

the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis