Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 100A > Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (53):
1

biological psychology

the links between biology and behaviour

2

neuron

a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system

3

sensory neurons

neutrons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord

4

motor neurons

neutrons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

5

interneurons

neutrons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs

6

dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neutron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

7

axon

the extension of a neutron, ending in branching terminal fibres, through which messages pass to other neurons to muscles or glands

8

myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibres of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulsed as hey impulse hops from one node to the next

9

action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical change that travels down an axon

10

threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

11

synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron. the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft

12

neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gap between neurons, when released by the sending neutron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptors sites on the receiving neutron, thereby influencing whether the neuron will generate a neural impulse

13

reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

14

endorphins

"morphine within" natural, opiatelike, neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure

15

nervous system

the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system

16

central nervous system (CNS)

the brain and spinal cord

17

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body

18

nerves

bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

19

somatic nervous system

the division of the PNS that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also knowns as skeletal nervous system

20

autonomic nervous system

the part of the PNS that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal orders. its sympathetic division arouses; it parasympathetic division calms

21

sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

22

parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

23

reflex

a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response

24

endocrine system

the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormone into the blood stream

25

hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissue

26

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrines glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norephinephrines) that help arouse the body in times of stress

27

pituitary gland

the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus that pituitary regulates growth and controls to the endocrine glands

28

lesion

tissue destruction. a brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue

29

electroencephalogram (EEP)

an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweeps across the brains's surface.

30

Positron emission tomography (PET)

a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive from of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task

31

Magnetic resonance imaging

a technique that uses magnetic field and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans shows brain anatomy

32

Functional MRI (fMRI)

a technique for revealing blood flow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function

33

Brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

34

medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

35

reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

36

Thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem it directs messengers to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

37

cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance

38

limbic system

neutral system (including the Hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemisphere associated with emotions and drives

39

amygdala

two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system; linked to emotion

40

hypothalamus

a neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward

41

cerebral cortex

the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information- processing center

42

glial cells (glia)

cells in the nervous system that supports, nourish, and protect neurons

43

frontal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex trying just behind the forehead; involving in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans judgements

44

parietal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position

45

occipital lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields

46

temporal lobes

portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear

47

motor cortex

an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements

48

sensory cortex

area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

49

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking

50

plasticity

the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by organizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience

51

neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

52

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibres connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

53

split brain

a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain;s two hemispheres by cutting the fibres (mainly those of the corpus callosum) connecting them