Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (38):
1

memory

the persistence of learning over time thought the storage and retrieval of the information

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encoding

the processing of information into the memory system. ex)by extracting meaning

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storage

the retention of encoding information over time

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retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

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sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

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short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dealing, before the information is stored or forgotten

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long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

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working memory

a newer understanding od short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, of information retrieved from long-term memory

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automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings

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effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

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rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

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spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention that is achieved through massed study of practice

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serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

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visual encoding

the encoding of picture images

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acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

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semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

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imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

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mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

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chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

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iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting nor more than a few tenths of a second

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echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds

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long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

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flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

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amnesia

loss of memory

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implicit memory

retention without conscious recall (also called nondeclarative memory)

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explicit memory

conscious recall of the memory of facts and experiences (also called declarative memory)

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hippocampus

a neural centre that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage

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recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

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recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identity items previously learning, as on a multiple-choice test

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relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

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priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

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deja vu

the eerie sense that 'i've experienced this before' cues from current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

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mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good and bad mood

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proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

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retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

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repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defines mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety- arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

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misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event

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source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (also called source misattribution) source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories