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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (40):
1

consciousness

our awareness of ourselves and our environment

2

cognitive neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language

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dual processing

the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks

4

selective attention

the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus

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inattention blindness

failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere

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change blindness

failing to notice changes in the environment

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circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occurs on a 24-hour basis

8

REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep, recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed (expect for minor twitches) but other body systems are active

9

alpha waves

the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state

10

sleep

periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness- as district from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation

11

hallucinations

false sensory experience, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus

12

delta waves

the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep

13

insomnia

recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

14

narcolepsy

a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times

15

sleep apnea

a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessation of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings

16

night terrors

a sleep disorder characterized by arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered

17

dream

a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and alter difficulties remembering it

18

manifest content

according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden content)

19

latent content

according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content)

20

REM rebound

the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakening during REM sleep)

21

hypnosis

a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thought, or behaviours will spontaneously occur

22

posthypnotic suggestion

a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviours

23

dissociation

a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviours to occur simultaneously with others

24

psychoactive drug

a chemical substance that alter perceptions and moods

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tolerance

the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect

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withdrawal

the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug

27

physical dependence

a physiological need for a drug marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued

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psychological dependence

a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions

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addiction

compulsive drug cravings and use, despite adverse consequences

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depressants

drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions

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barbiturates

drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

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opiates

opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporality lessening pain and anxiety

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stimulants

drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that exit neural activity and speed up body function

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amphetamines

drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

35

methamphetamine

a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce dateline dopamine levels

36

Ecstasy (MDMA)

a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term hard to serotonin- producing neurons and to mood and cognition

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hallucinogens

psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input

38

LSD

a powerful hallucinogenic drug also known as acid

39

THC

the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects including mild hallucinations

40

near-death experience

an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations