Chapter 1 Unit 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Unit 1 Deck (31):
1

logging companies

From shipping crates to paper bags , the logging industry supplies the raw materials for an array of products.

Logging: the activity of cutting down trees in order to use their wood.

2

They sat before an array of microphones and cameras.


There was a splendid array of food on the table.

A large number of magazines were arrayed on the stand. V

Array: a large number , collection (n)
Array: to arrange a group of things in a particular way. (V)

3

Forests, especially tropical rainforests are a vital natural resource with extensive biodiversity and irreplaceable wildlife habitat.


With so many areas of woodland being cut down, a lot of wildlife is losing its natural habitat.

Habitat:
the natural environment in which an animal or plant usually lives.

4

Tennis has a history spanning several centuries.

Her acting career spanned almost six decades.

Climate change has effects spanning the globe.

Span:
to exist or continue for a particular length of time.

5

The effects of this legislation will extend (= reach) further than the government intends.



The effects of logging extend beyond just the felling of a swath of trees.

Extend: to reach, continue.
Extended: adj extendable adj
Extensive, extent(n) , extensively.

6

A great number of trees were felled to provide space for grazing.

The effects of logging extend beyond just the felling of a swath of trees.

Fell:
To cut down a tree

7

It's good soil - full of nutrients.
A healthy diet should provide all your essential nutrients.

Nutrient:
any substance that plants or animals need in order to live and grow.

8

When they studied the air, they found microorganisms living there, including three new kinds, or species, never seen before.

Microorganism: a living thing that on its own is too small to be seen without a microscope

9

Nutrients, water, and shelter for plants , animals, and microorganisms throughout the ecosystem are also lost becasue of logging.

Ecosystem:
all the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment

10

Many life forms both terrestrial and aquatic are becoming endangered as forests vanish.

Terrestrial:
Living on the land
Aquatic:
Living on the water
Vanish: to disappear , vanishing, vanished

11

Trees protect the soil beneath them.

Beneath: below

12

A modern extension on the old building would ruin its architectural integrity.

The trees protect the soil beneath them;thus, tree loss can affect its integrity.

Integrity: the quality of being whole and complete.

13

a myriad of choices

And now myriads of bars and hotels are opening up along the coast.

They offered no solution for all our myriad problems.

Myriad: n adj
a very large number of something

14

Myriad plant life relies on a Dense canopy of branches and leaves to keep it healthy and intact.

Canopy:the branches and leaves that spread out at the top of a group of trees forming a type of roof

15

The canopy prevents surface runoff by intercepting heavy rainfall.

Runoff:
water that flows away from high areas to low areas

هرزآب

16

Trees help prevent flooding by intercepting raindrops on their leaves, branches, and trunks...

Intercept, interception:
To catch? To interrupt the progress of something.

17

The church was destroyed in the bombing but the altar survived intact.

It's difficult to emerge from such a scandal with your reputation still intact.

Intact: complete and in original state, not damaged.

18

The canopy prevents surface runoff by intercepting heavy rainfall so that water can drip down onto the porous earth.

Porous:
Something that is porous has many small holes, so liquid or air can pass through, especially slowly.

Drip down: If a liquid drips, it falls in drops, or you make it fall in drops

19

He suffered a second heart attack two days ago but his condition has now stabilized.

The roots also stabilize the soil and help prevent erosion.

Stabilize:
​If something stabilizes, it becomes fixed or stops changing.

20

soil/coastal erosion

Tree Roots aslo stabilize the soil and help prevent erosion.

Erosion:
​the fact of soil, stone, etc. being gradually damaged and removed by the waves, rain, or wind

21

The railway track will have to be cleared of vegetation if it is to be used again.

Much of the region's native vegetation has been damaged by developers who are building hotels along the coast.

Vegetation along rivers and stream banks helps maintain a steady water flow by blocking the entry of soil and other residue.

Vegetation:
plants in general, or plants that are found in a particular area.

22

She cut off the best meat and threw away the residue.

The white residue in/on the kettle is a result of minerals in the water

Residue:
formal the part that is left after the main part has gone or been taken away, or a substance that remains after a chemical process such as evaporation

23

very simple, usually small plants that grow in or near water and do not have ordinary leaves or roots

Algae:/algi/

24

This drug inhibits the growth of tumours.

While tree shades inhibits thhe growth of algae....

Inhibit:
to slow down a process or the growth of something:

25

Removing trees obliterates these benefits of stabilizing the soil and helping to prevent erosion.

All of a sudden the view was obliterated by the fog.

Obliterate, Obliteration
to remove all signs of something, either by destroying it or by covering it so that it cannot be seen.

26

Maybe she gets drunk to obliterate painful memories.

Obliterate:
to make an idea or feeling disappear completely.

27

If we continue to deplete the earth's natural resources, we will cause serious damage to the environment.

The illness depletes the body of important vitamins.

That last holiday seriously depleted my bank account!

Deplete, depletion:
exhaust, consume, use up ,
to reduce something in size or amount, especially supplies of energy, money.

28

Water quality in nearby streams and rivers also deteriorates as tree loss contributes to increased sedimentation.

We could see his health deteriorating week by week.
Unfortunately the survey shows that children's health is deteriorating in many areas.

Deteriorate, deterioration:
To become worse

29

A healthy diet can lessen the risk of heart disease.

Lessen: become less strong

30

biology the process of changing from a liquid to a gas

Evaporation

31

Deforestation is responsible for about one-fifth of carbon dioxide emissions worldwide, making it a major contributor to climate change.

Deforestation is responsible for millions of tons of carbon being released into the atmosphere annually.


Deforestation is destroying large areas of tropical rain forest.

Deforestation:​
the cutting down of trees in a large area, or the destruction of forests by people.