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Essential Words For IELTS > Unit 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 5 Deck (48):

There is a shortage of food and shelter in the refugee camps.

The long hot summer has led to serious water shortages.

Shortage : a situation in which there is not enough of something.


A country crippled by war.

Yet a global nursing shortage threatens ti cripple health care systems worldwide.

Cripple: to cause damage to someone or something , making him her or it weak and not effective.

Crippled: adj


We wanted to book a hotel room in july but there were no vacancies.

There are still some vacancies for students in science and engineering , but the vacancies in humanities have been filled.

There is a vacancy for a shop assistant on saturdays.

Many nurses vacate their jobs in their native countries in favor of better positions

Vacancy, vacant, vacate.

A space or place that is available to be used.

The job that no one is doing and therefore is available for someone new to do.


From that standpoint, migration of nurses from poorer to wealthier countries would appear to benefit all involved.

"I have to put aside my emotions" , he says "and consider it from a professional standpoint."

Point of view


She was lured into the job by the offer of a high salary.

Supermarket chains try to lure customers with price discounts.

To persuade someone to do something or go somewhere by offering them something exciting.
To attract.


Insurance companies are already overburdened with similar claims.

he was overburdened with his father's heavy debts.

Overburden: to make someone or somethinh work too hard or carry, or deal with too much.


Conditions then deteriorate further as the nurse population ratio declines.

To gradually go lower, become smaller


A flu epidemic. N

A crime epidemic/ unemployment epidemic. N

Poverty in this country has reached epidemic proportions. Adj

Crime and poverty are epidemic in this country. Adj

Rapid spread of disease.
Happening a lot and affecting many people.


The rampant spread of the epidemic made it difficult to control.

Disease is rampant in the overcrowded city.

The disease spread rampantly throughout the region.

Rampant corruption.

In african countries where the HIV/AIDS epidemic is rampant, some patients go untreated not because lifesaving drugs are unavailable but because there are not enough nurses to administer them.

Spreading out of control,
Something bad getting worse quickly in an uncontrolled way, inceasing.


The economy has been badly administered by the present government.

To control the operation or arrangement of something.
To govern a country, region , etc.


The lack of trained doctors as well as nurses means that health care is often administered by workers who have only rudimentary skills.

To administer medicine/punishment/relief.

Tests will be administered to schoolchildren at 7 and 12 years.

There are not enough nurses to administer patients in this country.

To cause someone to recieve something.


In develped countries in Europe and North America, the nursing shortage largely stems from an aging population, who require more health care services.

Stem from: to develop or come from something.


Its difficult for poorer nations to retain their nurses because better salaries and living conditions lure many nurses to work in wealthier countries.

She succeeded in retaining her lead in the second half of the race.

Developed countries need to invest in nursing education and focus on retaining and rewarding nurses appropriately both financially and through high quality working conditions.

Retain: to keep or continue to have something.


Work at the health care center came to a standstill because there was not enough money to pay the staff.

A condition in which all movement or activity has stopped.


The new nurse has been a real standout with excellent reviews from doctors and patients alike.

While all the desserts are pretty good, the clear standout is the lemon pie.

Standout: n and adj

An excellent example or the best example of something.

She was the standout performer.


The complexity of the nursing shortage problem makes it difficult to solve.

Complexity - complex.


Her mother strictly regulates how much TV she can watch.

The travel industry is regulated by a set of guidelines.

Regulate: to control something, especially by making it work in a particular way.


The group of small animals that includes mice and rats.



The most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease.

A medical condition that affects especially old people, causing the memory and other mental abilities ti gradually become worse, and leading to confused behaviour.


The task is designed to test children's spatial awareness.

Relating to the postion , area , and size of things, relating to space


Regular exercise can help stave off some effects of normal aging and delay or diminish the gravity of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease.

Stave off:
To prevent something or someone from doing something until a later time.


I don't think you understand the gravity of the situation.

Grave, gravely


She was taken into hospital last week when her condition suddenly deteriorated.

The political situation in the region has deteriorated rapidly.

We could see his health deteriorating week by week.

We have seen a deterioration in relations between the countries.

To become worse


She attended a school for the visually impaired.

He was given a ticket for driving while impaired by alcohol.

The link between exercise and improved brain function in the elderly and in people with impaired congnition could lead to new ways to prevent and treat brain disorders.

Impaired: damaged or weakended.
Impair: to spoil something or make it weaker si that it is less effective.


Exercise can counteract the effect of dementia.

Drinking a lot of water counteracts the dehydrating effects of hot weather.

To reduce or remove the effect of something unwanted by producing an opposite effect, to work against.


The doctor has made an initial diagnosis.

Diagnosis of the disease is difficult in early stages.

To identify an illness.


Reputable charities spend most of the donated money on aid and a small fraction on administration.

Of the thousands of drugs under investigation at sny one time, only a small fraction will produced the desired result without unacceptable sideeffects.

Fraction: a small part of something, small amount.


Scientists target a step in the disease process where they believe a drug can have an effect.

Target: to focus on


Scientists look at how much of the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream and whether it has any toxic (poisonous) by-products.

Plants absorb carbon dioxide.

Cotton makes a good cleaning material because it is so absorbent.

As part of their research , scientists look at the absorption of adrug into the bloodstream.

In cold climates, houses need to have walls that will absorb heat.

Absorb, absorption, absorbent.

to take something in , especially gradually.


We will provide help whenever you deem it appropriate.

It is deemed bad manners in some cultures to speak with your mouth full of food.

Deem: to consider or judge something in a particular way.


If the symptoms recur, visit your doctor.

The theme of loss recurs throughout much of his writing.

If the problem recurred, we'd have to think again.
The same ideas recur throughout her books.

to happen many times or to happen again


The police have so far been unable to ascertain the cause of the explosion.

Clinical trials test a drug in small groups of healthy volunteers to ascertain its safety and the appropriate dose range.

Ascertain : to discover


The government is spending millions of dollars in its attempt to combat drug abuse.

I have to combat this constant desire to eat chocolate.

to try to stop something unpleasant or harmful from happening or increasing.


We see each other at regular intervals - usually about once a month.

Interval: a period between two times or events.


The drugs did nothing to alleviate her pain/suffering.

the alleviation of poverty

That drug is known to cure or alleviate a specific disease.

Alleviate, alleviation:
to make something bad such as pain or problems less severe


the entire village was obliterated by the storm.

Removing trees obliterate these benefits...

Obliterate: to remove, erase , destroy


Because the underlying causes of a nursing shortage are complex and vary in different regions, a short-term fix will not remedy the situation.

It is important to look at all the underlying causes of the conflict.

Underlying: real but not immediately obvious.


Developing nations

Developed countries



But there is another side to the story ..



Leaving the bulk of health care up to assistant nurses, who have only rudimentary training would deteriorate situations...

Bulk: the the largest part ΨͺΩˆΨ―Ω‡


Dwindling supplies of nurses.

Her hopes of success in the race dwindled last night as the weather became worse.

Dwindle, Dwindling:
to become smaller in size or amount , or fewer in number.


The disease-fighting , wieght-controlling benefits of physical exercise, have long been known.



Exercise can help relieve depression.

Relieve: to make an unpleasant feeling , such as pain or worry , less strong.


To enhance the outcome



The deep depression he fell into was a byproduct of his disease.

Byproduct: sth unexpected that happens as a result of sth else.


Parkinson's disease is a debilitating and incurable disease of the nervous system.

Incurable: not able to be cured.


Scientists theorize that .....



Toxin , toxic , toxicity , toxically