Chapter 1 Unit 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 Unit 2 Deck (26):

Bird migration generally takes place twice a year, in the spring and autumn.

Scientists study the habit of migratory birds.

Some birds migrate thousands of miles to reach their summer breeding grounds.

Migrants stop to rest several times during their journey.

Migrate, migration, migrant, migratory:
Movement from one place to another.


These animals always return to the same breeding ground.

Migration is the regular movement of animals between their breeding grounds and the areas that they inhabit during the rest of the year.

Breeding ground:
a place where animals breed and produce their babies.


Poor housing conditions are breeding grounds for crime.

Breeding ground:
a place where something develops easily, especially something unpleasant.


These remote islands are inhabited only by birds.

Inhabit: to live in


Science has always fascinated me.

Anything to do with planes and flying fascinates him.

fascinate, fascinating, fascination.
To interest someone a lot.


If birds become aware of the presence of an observer they quickly fly away.

You have to be a real observant to spot most types of birds.

We can learn a great deal about the lives of birds through simple observation.

Observe, observer, observant,observation.


It's our imperative to protect the natural environment.

Migration is an excellent example of how nature has responded to the biological imperative for species to evolve and spread out..

A priority, an urgent need


It's imperative to act now before the problem gets really serious.

It is imperative to keep dogs and cats away from the bird breeding area.

Imperative: very important, essential


Scientists believe that birds evolve from dinosaurs.

The company has evolved over the years into a multi-million dollar organization.

The exhibition will illustrate how life evolved from water.

Most languages are constantly evolving and changing, which is what keeps them alive.

Evolve, evolution, evolutionary:
to develop and change


Migration is an excellent example of how nature has responded to the biological imperative for species to evolve and spread out into all possible ecological niches that can provide the conditions necessary for species to breed and raise young.

an area or position that is exactly suitable for a small group of the same type


Mountain gorillas are an endangered species.

Over a hundred species of insect are found in this area.

set of animals or plants in which the members have similar characteristics to each other and can breed with each other.


The most common form of bird migration involves travelling to higher latitudes to breed during the warm season and then returning to lower latitudes during the non-breeding season.

the position north or south of the equator measured from 0° to 90°


This form of migration allows birds to breed in areas that provide optimal conditions for nesting and feeding their youngs.

Optimal: extremely good , most favourable ,best.


the northern/southern hemisphere

Hemisphere: one of two halves of the earth, especially above or below the equator.


The equatorial climate of the Amazonian rain forests is hot and wet.

near the equator, or typical of places near the equator.


No trees grow in the Arctic regions.

The North of England has been experiencing Arctic conditions these past few days.

Arctic: belonging to the arctic.
Very cold


a small black and white sea bird with long, pointed wings and a divided tail

Tern : پرستو


We drove down to the windswept Atlantic coast of Portugal.

Windswept: ​adj
(of places) open to and not protected from strong winds


Their bodyweight is made up of the fat necessary to fuel this amazing journey.

Fuel: to provide energy


How birds manage to unerringly travel between distant locations is one aspect that has fascinated observers for centuries.

Unerring , unerringly:
not erring, not making mistakes, accurate, unfailingly correct


The Eiffel Tower is a remarkable feat of engineering.

She performed remarkable feats of organization for the company.

Feat: something difficult needing a lot of skill, strength, courage, etc. to achieve it.


Cyril's most impressive quality was his innate goodness.

Migratory birds all have some ability to navigate and an innate drive to travel in a particular direction.

Innate: An innate quality or ability is one that you were born with, not one you have learned.


Nocturnal migrants, those species that travel at night, seem to take their navigational cues from the stars.

Nocturnal: active at night,
happening in or active during the night, or relating to the night.


When the stars are obscured by clouds, nocturnal migrants become confused.

The sun was obscured by clouds.

His answers were obscure and confusing.

Obscure , obscurely :
to prevent something from being seen or heard.
not clear and difficult to understand or see.


They got lost when they strayed too far from the path.

Stray: to leave the correct route, to become separated from the group.


Diurnal migrants, those migrating during the day, take their cues from the location of the sun...

a farmer's diurnal tasks

Diurnal: opps: nocturnal
Active during days, being active or happening during the day rather than at night, daily