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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (235)
1

Integumentary system

consists of skin and its appendages (to incl. glands, hair, fur, wool, feathers, scales, claws, beaks, horns, hooves, and nails)

2

Cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o; suffix -derma

Skin
(Dermatology is the study of skin)

3

epi-

above

4

dermis

Skin
Also middle layer of skin or corium, lies below the epidermis

5

Kerat/o

Keratin
Also horny or cornea

6

melan/o

black or dark
Melanin - black pigment produced by melanocytes

7

The absence of normal pigmentation

Albinism

8

Stratum basale or stratum germinativum

deepest or basal layer that continually multiplies to replenish cells lost from the epidermal surface

9

Cuboidal

Cubelike cells arranged in rows

10

Stratum spinosum

layer immediately superficial to the stratum basale
also called the prickle or spinous layer

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Keratinization

development of the hard, protein constituent of hair, nails, epidermis, horny structures, and tooth enamel

12

Desquamation

process in which cell organelles gradually dissolve

13

Stratum granulosum

layer immediately superficial to the stratum spinosum, cells contain keratin granules in their cytoplasm

14

Stratum lucidum

layer immediately superficial to the stratum granulosum, which is clear because of the accumulation of keratin fibers in cell cytoplasm. Not present in all species, but when present, found in areas of high wear and tear such as foot pads

15

Stratum Corneum

most superficial layer of epidermis, which consists of layers of dead, highly keratinized, and flattened cells
also called the horny layer

16

Collagen

tough, flexible, fibrous protein found in skin, bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
Kolla in Greek means glue, and -gen means to produce

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histiocytes

phagocytic cells that engulf foreign substances
also called tissue macrophages

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mast cells

cells that respond to insult by producing and releasing histamine and heparin

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histamine

chemical released in response to allergens that causes itching

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heparin

anticoagulant chemical released in response to injury

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perception

ability to recognize sensory stimuli

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tactile

tactile perception is the ability to recognize touch sensation

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subcutaneous layer or hypodermis

located deep to or under the dermis and is composed of connective tissue

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fat

lipid
combining form for fat adip/o
adipocytes - fat cells producing lipid

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sebaceous gland

oil gland producing sebum (oily substance)

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seb/o

combining form meaning sebum

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ducts

tubelike passages also called ductules

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holocrine glands

the secreting cell and its secretion make up the discharge produced

29

sweat or sudoriferous glands

aggregations of cells located in the dermis
divided into eccrine and apocrine glands
Eccrine glands: produce and secrete water, salt, and waste (sweat), located in various regions depending on species; tiny, coiled glands that have ducts that open directly onto the skin surface through pores
Apocrine glands: produce and secrete a stong-smelling substance into the hair follicles; found throughout body; get their name from the fact that the free end or apical end of the cell is cast off along with the secretory products

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function of sweat glands

help regulate body temperature

31

hyperthermia

high body temperature

32

hypothermia

low body temperature

33

hidrosis

production and excretion of sweat

34

hidr/o

sweat

35

anhidrosis

abnormal reduction of sweating

36

hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating

37

ceruminous glands

modified sweat glands located in ear canal
secrete cerumen, commonly called ear wax

38

pil/i, pil/o, trich/o

combining form for hair

39

cuticle

one cell layer thick and appears scaly (portion of hair shaft)

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cortex

main component of the hair shaft, several layers thick, responsible for coat color

41

medulla

innermost component of hair shaft

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follicles

sacs that hold the hair fibers

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arrector pili

tiny muscle attached to the hair follicle that causes the hair to stand erect in response to cold temps or stress

44

Piloerection

condition of the hair standing straight up

45

fur

short, fine, soft hair

46

pelt

skin in addition to fur or hair

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guard hairs; primary hairs; topcoat

long, straight, stiff hairs that form the outer coat
guard hairs include mane hair, bristly hair of swine, and most the fur hair

48

secondary hairs; undercoat

finer, softer, and wavy hair
secondary hairs include wool and wavy hair located near the skin of rabbits

49

tactile hair or vibrissae

long, brittle, extremely sensitive hairs usually located on the face
example cat whiskers

50

cilia

thin, short hairs
example eyelashes

51

simple pattern hair growth

guard hairs that grow from separate follicular openings, as in cattle

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compound pattern hair growth

multiple guard hairs that grow from single follicles, as in dogs

53

shedding

normal hair loss caused by temperature, hormones, photoperiod (light), nutrition, and other nondisease causes

54

trich/o

hair

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phyt/o

plant

56

fungi

vegetative organisms (plants) that grow as branched hairlike filaments (trich/o).

57

Walls

usually located dorsal and lateral to the distal phalanx

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Sole

located ventral to the distal phalanx and usually flaky

59

foot pads or tori

provide cushioning and protection for the bones of the foot

60

digital pads

on the palmar and plantar surfaces of the phalanges in dogs and cats

61

metacarpal/tarsal pads

singular pads located on the palmar or plantar surfaces of the metacarpal/tarsal areas, respectively

62

carpal pads

located on the palmar surface of each carpus, do not bear weight

63

digitigrade animals

dogs and cats are called that because they walk on their toes, with only the digital and metacarpal/tarsal pads making contact with the ground

64

Plantigrade animals

have well-developed foot pads, such as those in primates
walk with phalanges, metacarpals/tarsals and carpal and tarsal bones making contact with the ground

65

Nails and claws

in dogs and cats these are keratin plates covering the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx

66

coronary band also called coronet

region where hoof meets the skin, analogous to the cuticle of the human nail
site of hoof wall growth

67

periople

flaky tissue band located at the junction of the coronary band the hoof wall and extends distally. it widens at the heel to cover the bulbs

68

hoof wall

epidermal tissue that includes the toe (front), quarters (sides), and heels (back)

69

bars

raised v-shaped structure on ventral surface of hoof. bars are located on either side of the frog

70

sole

softer hoof tissue located on the ventral surface of the hoof (bottom of the hoof)

71

frog

v-shaped pad of soft horn located in the central region of the ventral hoof surface of equines (located between the bars). When weight is put on frog, blood is forced out of the foot to promote circulation of blood through the foot.

72

bulbs of heel

upward thickening of frog above the heels of the wall

73

Quick

connective tissue dermis located beneath the wall and sole containing numerous blood vessels and nerve endings
very sensitive

74

quicking

term used to describe trimming the nail or claw to the level of the dermis
results in bleeding and pain

75

onych/o

combining form for claw

76

hooves

horny covering of the distal phalanx

77

ungulates

hooved animals

78

ungul/o

combining form for hoof

79

dewclaws

rudimentary bones

80

Chestnuts and ergots

vestigial pads in equines

81

horns

permanent structures that grow continuously; grow from frontal skull bones and originate from keratinized epithelium

82

cornification

conversion of epithelium into keratin or horn

83

polled

breeds that are naturally hornless

84

Antlers

non-permanent structures, shed and regrown annually
grow from skulls
initially covered with skin called velvet, which the animal rubs off after it dies. now bone is exposed, loses its blood supply and the antlers are shed

85

biopsy

removal of living tissue for examination of life

86

bi/o

combining form for life

87

-opsy

means view of

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incisional biopsy

the removal of a piece of a tumor or lesion for examination

89

excisional biopsy

the removal of an entire tumor or lesion in addition to a margin of surrounding tissue for examination

90

excision
incision

excision - cut out of tissue
incision - cut into tissue

91

punch biopsy

obtaining full thickness skin samples

92

culture

diagnostic or research procedure used to allow microbes to reproduce
(tissue culture = taking epithelial cells and growing them in a medium so that intracellular microbes such as viruses can replicate

93

exfoliative cytology

scraping of cells from tissue and examination under a microscope

94

exfoliative

means falling off

95

intradermal skin testing

injection of test substances into the skin layer to observe a reaction

96

purified protein derivative or PPD

Tuberculosis testing

97

skin scrape

microscopic examination of skin for the presence of mites

98

abrasion

injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped

99

abscess

localized collection of pus

100

acne

skin inflammation caused by plugged sebaceous glands and comedone development from papules and pustules

101

chin acne

common condition in cats, acne on chin and lips

102

acute moist dermatitis

bacterial skin disease that is worsened by licking and scratching also called HOT SPOT

103

alopecia

hair loss resulting in hairless patches or complete lack of hair

104

shedding

normal hair loss due to various causes

105

atopy

hypersensitivity reaction in animals involving pruritus with secondary dermatitis; commonly called allergies or allergic dermatitis

106

Hypersensitization

increased response to an allergen

107

hyposensitization

decreased response to an allergen

108

bulla, pl. bullae

skin elevation filled with fluid that are greater than 0.5cm in diameter

109

carbuncle

cluster of furuncles

110

carcinoma

malignant neoplasm of epithelial tissue

111

cellulitis

inflammation of connective tissue

112

diffuse

widespread

113

localized

within a well-defined area

114

comedo, pl. comedones

blackhead or buildup of sebum and keratin in a pore

115

contusion

injury that does not break the skin; characterized by pain, swelling, and discoloration

116

crust

collection of dried sebum and cell debris

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dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

118

contact dermatitis

inflammation of the skin caused by touching an irritant

119

dermatocellulitis

inflammation of the skin and connective tissue

120

dermatomycosis

abnormal skin condition caused by superficial fungus
also called dermatophytosis.
dermatophytes are superficial fungi found on the skin (e.g. ringworm)

121

dermatosis, pl. dermatoses

abnormal skin condition

122

discoid lupus erythematosus, abbrev. DLE

canine autoimmune disease in which bridge of nose and sometimes face and lips exhibit depigmentation, erythema, scaling, and erosions
may have been collie nose or solar dermatitis in past

123

dyskeratosis

abnormal alteration in keratinization

124

ecchymosis, pl. ecchymoses

purplish nonelevated patch of bleeding into the skin
also called a bruise

125

ecthyma

skin infection with shallow eruptions caused by a pox virus
also known as soremouth

126

eczema

general term for inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, crusts, and scabs either alone or in combination

127

eosinophilic granuloma complex

collective name for autoimmune lesion of eosinophilic ulcer, eosinophilic plaque, and linear granuloma found in cats and rarely in dogs.

128

erythema

skin redness
erythematous = means pertaining to redness

129

erythroderma

abnormal redness of skin occurring over a widespread area

130

erythr/o, erythem/o and erythemat/o

combining forms for red

131

exanthem, pl. exanthema

cutaneous rash caused by fever or disease

132

feline miliary dermatitis

skin disease of cats in which multiple crusts and bumps are present predominantly on the dorsum, the disease can be associated with many causes

133

fissure

cracklike sore

134

fistula, pl. fistulae

abnormal passage from an internal organ to the body surface or between two internal organs

135

footrot

bacterial hoof disease that spreads from the interdigital skin to the deeper foot structures

136

frostbite

tissue damage caused by extreme cold or contact with chemicals with extreme temperature (e.g. liquid nitrogen)

137

furuncle (also called a boil)

localized skin infection in a gland or hair follicle
furunculosis = abnormal condition of persistent boils over a period of time

138

gangrene

necrosis associated with loss of circulation

139

necrosis

condition of dead tissue
necrotic = pertaining to dead tissue

140

putrefaction

decay that produces a foul smell

141

granuloma

small area of healing tissue

142

hemangioma

benign tumor composed of newly formed blood vessels

143

hyperkeratosis (also called acanthokeratodermia)

increased growth of the horny layer of skin

144

infestations

occuption and dwelling of a parasite on the external surface of tissue

145

ectoparasites

live on the external surface

146

ecto-

outside

147

louse, pl. lice

wingless parasitic insect

148

pediculosis

lice infestation

149

mite

insect with a hard exoskeleton and paired, jointed legs

150

mange

common term for skin disease caused by mites
different types sarcoptic or demodectic depending on the type of mite involved

151

chiggers

infestation by mite larvae that results in severe pruritis

152

acariasis

infestation with ticks or mites

153

maggots

insect larvae found especially in dead or decaying tissue

154

myiasis

infestation by fly larvae

155

keratosis, pl. keratoses

abnormal condition of epidermal overgrowth and thickening

156

laceration

accidental cut into the skin

157

lesion

pathologic change of tissue, used to describe abnormalities in many locations

158

lipoma (also called fatty tumor)

benign growth of fat cells
commonly seen in older dogs

159

macule (also called macula)

flat, discolored lesion less than 1 cm in diameter

160

melanoma

tumor or growth of pigmented skin cells

161

amelanotic melanoma

unpigmented malignant melanoma

162

nodule

small knot protruding above the skin

163

onychomycosis

superficial fungal infection of the claw

164

pallor

skin paleness

165

papilloma

benign epithelial growth that is lobed

166

papule

small, raised skin lesion less than 0.5 cm in diameter

167

parakeratosis

lesion characterized by thick scales, cracking, and red raw surface caused by the persistence of keratinocyte nuclei in the horny layer of skin

168

paronychia

bacterial or viral infection of the claw

169

patch

localized skin color change greater than 1 cm in diameter

170

pemphigus

group of immune mediated skin diseases characterized by vesicles, bullae, and ulcers.
most common form pemphigus vulgaris which consists of shallow ulcerations frequently involving the oral mucosa and mucocutaneous junctions
pemphix is Greek for blister

171

petechia, pl. petechiae

small, pinpoint hemorrhages

172

plaque

solid raised lesion greater than 0.5cm in diameter

173

polyp

growth from mucous membranes

174

pruritus

itching

175

purpura

condition charaterized by hemorrhage into the skin that causes bruising. the two types of purpura are ecchymosis and petechia

176

pustule

small, circumscribed pus filled skin elevation

177

circumscribed

means contained in a limited area

178

pyoderma

skin disease containing pus

179

pus

inflammatory product made up of leukocytes, cell debris and fluid

180

purulent

containing or producing pus

181

puppy pyoderma

skin disease in puppies characterized by pus-containing lesions

182

juvenile pyoderma (also called puppy strangles)

skin disease in puppies that progresses to a systemic disease characterized by fever, anorexia, and enlarged and abscessing lymph nodes

183

sarcoma

malignant neoplasm of soft tissue arising from connective tissue

184

scale

flake

185

scar (also called cicatrix, pl. cicatrices)

mark left by healing lesion where excess collagen was produced to replace injured tissue

186

sebaceous cyst

closed sac of yellow fatty material

187

cyst

closed sac containing fluid or semisolid material

188

seborrhea

skin condition characterized by overproduction of sebum

189

skin tag

small growth that hangs from the body by stalks

190

ulcer

erosion of skin or mucous membrane

191

decubital ulcers (also called bed sores)

erosions of skin or mucous membranes as a result of prolonged pressure

192

urticaria (also called hives)

localized areas of swelling that itch

193

verrucae

warts

194

vesicle (also called a blister, bulla or bleb)

contained skin elevation filled with fluid that is greater than 0.5 cm in diameter

195

wheal

smooth, slightly raised swollen area that itches

196

cauterization

destruction of tissue using electric current, heat or chemicals

197

cryosurgery

destruction of tissue using extreme cold

198

debridement

removal of tissue and foreign material to aid healing

199

lance

to open or pierce with a lancet (scalpel blade) to allow drainage; abscesses are lanced to drain the pus present in the area

200

laser

device that transfers light into an intense beam for various purposes
acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

201

Inactivated toxin from Western diamondback rattlesnake

Crotalus atrox toxoid

202

Also called kennel cough

Infectious tracheobronchitis

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Usually spread through contaminated feces, ....... causes GI disease in dogs and systemic disease in cats

Coronavirus

204

A .... is a group of turkey eggs.

Clutch

205

A group of rabbits is known as a

Herd

206

In the process of ....., dairy animals give birth.

Freshening

207

Infection associated with "blue eye"

Canine hepatitis

208

Excess number of digits

Polydactyly

209

Excess liver fat in cats

Hepatic lipidosis

210

Protozoan causing diarrhea

Giardia lamblia

211

Striped or spotted two-color fur

Tabby

212

Castrated llama

Gelding

213

Castrated horse

Gelding

214

Castrated bovine

Steer

215

Castrated pig

Barrow

216

Castrated rabbit

Lapin

217

Intact male pig

Boar

218

Intact male cat

Tom

219

Intact female sheep

Ewe

220

When an animal (especially a cat) has more toes than normal, what is the medical name for the condition?

Polydactyly

221

Parts of a pig

Tail, Rump, Loin, Shoulder, Snout, Jowl, Dewclaw, Ham

222

Define constitution

Physical makeup of an animal

223

Define carnassial

Shearing cheek tooth (4th premolar upper arcade, 1st molar lower arcade)

224

Define coprophagy

Consuming feces

225

Define unthrifty

not well; unkempt

226

Define canine herpesvirus

respiratory, ocular problems

227

The rudimentary first digit of dogs and cats is called

Dewclaw

228

In cattle, the third and fourth metacarpal form what?

Cannon bone

229

An orange-brown animal with dark brown or black ticking

Ruddy

230

the physical makeup of an animal

Constitution

231

The musculature of the upper thigh in swine

Ham

232

The solid part of a sheep's tail

Dock

233

The carpus in ungulates is called?

Knee

234

What does an animal with a ticked coat have?

dark-tipped guard hairs

235

A cat that is fed too much oily fish is at risk of developing...

Steatitis