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1

Theriogenology

Study of animal reproduction

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Theri/o

Combining form for beast

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gen/o

Combining form for producing

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genit/o

Combining form for the organs of reproduction

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Perine/o

Combining form for the area between scrotum or vulva and anus

6

Testicles

Testis, sg.
Testes, pl.

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Scrot/o

Combining form for scrotum

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orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o, testicul/o

Combining form for testes (or gonads)

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Sertoli cells

Specialized cells in the testes that support and nourish sperm growth

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Seminiferous tubules

Channels in the testes in which sperm are produced and through which the sperm leave the testes

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Sperm

Spermatozoa, pl.
Spermatozoon, sg.

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sperm/o, spermat/o

Combining form for sperm

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Structure on top of head of spermatozoon

Acrosome (contains enzymes that allow the spermatozoon to penetrate the ovum)

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Production of male gametes

Spermatogenesis

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Sex cells

Gametes
Sperm - males
Ovum - females

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Tube at the upper part of each testis that secretes part of the semen, stores semen before ejaculation, and provides a passageway for sperm

Epididymis
Combining form epididym/o

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Capable of spontaneous motion

Motile

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Tube connected to the epididymis that carries sperm into the pelvic region toward the urethra

Ductus or vas deferens

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What does the spermatic cord encase? What is the spermatic cord suspending?

Nerves, blood and lymph vessels, cremaster muscle, ductus/vas deferens
The testes are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cord

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Enlarged part of a tube or canal

Ampulla (in some species, the ampulla of the ductus deferens is glandular as in horses, for example)

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Seminal vesicles or vesicular glands

Two glands that open into the ductus deferens where it joins the urethra
The seminal vesicles secrete a thick, yellow substance that nourishes sperm and adds volume to the ejaculated semen
(seminal vesicles is the term used in horses, in other species it is vesicular gland, if present)

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The ejaculatory fluid that contains sperm and the secretions of the accessory sex glands

Semen
Combining form semin/i

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Ejaculatory duct

It's formed by the union of the ductus deferens and the duct from the seminal vesicles. It passes through the prostrate and enters the urethra.

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Single gland that surrounds or is near the urethra and may be well defined or diffuse depending on the species.

The prostrate gland
It secretes a thick fluid that aids in the motility of sperm
Combining form is prostat/o

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Two glands located on either side of the urethra

The bulbourethral glands
They secrete a thick mucus that acts as a lubricant for sperm (cowper's glands in humans)

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Tube passing through the penis to the outside of the body; serves both reproductive and urinary systems.

Urethra
Combining form is urethr/o

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Male sex organ that carries reproductive and urinary products out of the body

Penis
Combining form is pen/i and priap/o

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Retractable fold of skin covering the glans penis (distal part of the penis on which the urethra opens)

Prepuce or foreskin

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Bone in dogs encased in penile tissue

Os penis

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S-shaped bend in the penis in some species, such as ruminants and swine

Sigmoid flexure

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Female gonads

Ovaries
Small pair of organs located in the caudal abdomen
They produce estrogen, progesterone and ova (or eggs)
Combining form ovari/o, oophor/o

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Where are ova contained?

In small sacs of the ovaries called GRAAFIAN FOLLICLES (one ovum per follicle)

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Combining form oo/o, ov/i and ov/o mean?

Ovum or egg

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Egg cell

oocyte

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Paired tubes that extend from the cranial portion of the uterus to the ovary (although they are not attached to the ovary)

Uterine tubes, also called oviducts or fallopian tubes
Combining form is salping/o (which means tube)

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A funnel-shaped opening at the distal end of each uterine tube

Infundibulum

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Fringed extensions on infundibulum that catch ova when they leave the ovary

Fimbriae (they are not attached to the ovary)

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Egg and sperm union

Fertilization (usually occurs in the uterine tube)

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Thick-walled, hollow organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining that houses the developing embryo in pregnant females

Uterus (situated dorsal to the urinary bladder and ventral to the rectum
Combining forms are hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o and uter/o

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Cranial end of the uterus has two horns that travel toward the oviducts

Cornus (=horn)
Some animals are bicornuate, which means having two large, well-defined uterine horns

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The middle portion of the uterus

Corpus (=body)

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The caudal portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina

Cervix
(Cervic/o means neck or necklike structure)

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Membranous outer layer of the uterus

Perimetrium
(Peri- is the prefix for surrounding)

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Muscular middle layer of the uterus

Myometrium
(My/o is the combining form for muscle)

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Inner layer of the uterus

Endometrium
(Endo- is the prefix meaning within)

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Ringlike smooth muscle

Sphincter

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Muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body

Vagina
Combining forms are colp/o and vagin/o

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What do you call the membranous fold of tissue which may partially or completely cover the external vaginal orifice?

Hymen

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Entrance or outlet from a body cavity

Orifice

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The external opening to the urogenital tract and consists of the vaginal orifice, vestibular glands, clitoris, hymen, and urethral orifice.

Vulva or pudendum
Combining forms are vulv/o and episi/o

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The region between the vaginal orifice and anus in females

Perineum

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Fleshy borders or edges of the vulva

Labia, occasionally called lips

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Entrance from the vagina to the outside of the body

Vaginal orifice

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Vestibular glands (also known as Bartholin's glands in primates)

Found in bovine, feline, and occasionally ovine species.
They secrete mucus to lubricate the vagina

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Sensitive erectile tissue of females located in the ventral portion of the vulva

Clitoris (analog of the glans penis of the male)

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Where the vagina and vulva join, sometimes associated with a vestigial hymen

Urethral orifice

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Milk-producing glands in females

Mammary glands
Combining forms are mamm/o and mast/o

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Another word for mammary glands in litter-bearing species

Mammae (or mamma, singular) are usually paired on ventral surface, each mamma is associated with one nipple

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What do you call the mammary gland in large animals?

Udder, located in the inguinal area, has two or four functional teats

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Nipple area in large animals

Teat

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Four mammae in cows

Quarters

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Milk-secreting sacs contained in lobes and lobules of mammary gland tissue

Alveoli

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The lobes drain toward the teat or papilla through what?

Lactiferous ducts, come together to form the lactiferous, or teat, sinus.

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Combining form for milk

Lact/i

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Composed of the gland cistern (within the gland) and the teat cistern ( withing the teat)

Lactiferous sinus
Milk travels from the gland cistern to the teat cistern

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Milk empties from the teat cistern into ...?

Papillary duct, commonly called the streak canal

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Heat cycle

Estrous cycle

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Rupture of the graafian follicle

Ovulation

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Yellow ruptured follicle

Corpus luteum, or yellow body, abbreviated CL

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The stage of the estrous cycle in which the graafian follicle is present

Follicular phase

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The stage of the estrous cycle in which the corpus luteum is present

Luteal phase

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Period of the estrous cycle before sexual receptivity

Proestrus (pro- means before)

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Period of the estrous cycle in which the female is receptive to the male

Estrus

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Ovulation occurs, and the animal is said to be in heat, is also called what?

Standing heat

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Short period of the estrous cycle after sexual receptivity

Metestrus

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Corpus luteum decreased in size

Corpus albicans or white body (animal is not pregnant)

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Period of the estrous cycle after metestrus

Diestrus

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Period of the estrous cycle when the animal is sexually quiet

Anestrus

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Terms meaning sexual intercourse

Copulation or coitus

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Insertion of penis into the vagina

Intromission

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Releasing semen during copulation

Ejaculation
Ejaculat/o means to throw or hurl out

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Union of ovum and sperm

Fertilization

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Female organ of mammals that develops during pregnancy and joins mother and offspring for exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products

Placenta, also called afterbirth

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Structure that forms where fetus communicates with the placenta

Umbilical cord

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Structure that forms on the abdominal wall where the umbilical cord was connected to the fetus

Umbilicus, also called navel
Combining form umbilic/o

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Having one estrous or heat cycle per year

Monestrous

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Having more than one estrous or heat cycle per year

Polyestrous

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Animals in which ovum release occurs cyclically

Spontaneous ovulators

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Animals in which the ovum is released only after copulation

Induced or reflex ovulators
Examples: cats, rabbits, ferrets, llamas, and mink

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Pertaining to a specific time of year

Seasonally

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Innermost membrane enveloping the embryo in the uterus

Amnion, may be called amniotic sac or bag of waters

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Innermost layer of the placenta

Allantois, it forms a sac between itself and the amnion, where fetal waste products accumulate

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Outermost layer of the placenta

Chorion

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Preparatory step to animals mating, where one animal climbs on top of the other

Mounting

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period of copulation between male and female canine during which the two animals are locked together by penile erectile tissue

Tie

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Beginning of a new individual resulting from fertilization

Conception

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Fertilized egg

Zygote

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Division of sex cells in which the cell receives half the chromosomes from each parent

Meiosis

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Attachment and embedding of the zygote in the uterus

Implantation

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Developing zygote after implantation

Embryo

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Unborn animal

Fetus

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Time period between Conception and parturition

Pregnancy, also called cyesis
Combining form pregn/o

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Layers of the embryo

Ectoderm (outer), mesoderm (middle) and endoderm (inner)

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Elevation of the ruminant placenta that is on the fetal surface and adheres to the maternal caruncle

Cotyledon, also called buttons

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Fleshy mass on maternal ruminant placenta that attaches to the fetal cotyledon

Caruncle

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Together the caruncle and cotyledon from the ...?

Placentome

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Period of development of the fetus in the uterus from conception to parturition

Gestation
Combining forms are gest/o and gestat/o

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Capable of living outside the mother

viable

109

Combining form for pregnant

Gravid/o

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Suffix meaning bearing a live fetus

-para

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One who has never been pregnant

Nulligravida (nulli- means none)

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Female who has never borne a viable fetus

Nullipara

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Female during first pregnancy

Primigravida (primi- means first)

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Female who has borne one offspring

Primipara

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One who has had multiple pregnancies

Multigravida (multi- means many)

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Female who has born multiple offspring during different gestations

Multiparous

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Group of offspring born during the same labor

Litter

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Bearing live young

Viviparous (vivi- is the prefix for live)

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Bearing eggs

Oviparous

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Giving birth

Parturition, also called labor
Combining form is part/o

121

Period before onset of labor

Antepartum

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Period immediately after labor

Postpartum

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First stage of labor

Dilation of uterus

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Expulsion of fetus

Delivery

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Newborn

Neonate

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First stool of newborn

Meconium

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Process of uterus returning to its normal size

Uterine involution

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Thick fluid that contains nutrients and antibodies needed by neonate

Colostrum

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Process of forming and secreting milk

Lactation

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Orientation of the fetus before delivery

Presentation

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Cranial presentation

Legs and head directed toward the cervix

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Caudal presentation

Pelvis and legs directed toward the cervix (in swine this is considered normal)

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Transverse presentation

Fetus lying across the cervix, normal parturition not achieved

134

Breech presentation

Tail of fetus presented first and delivery may or may not be obstructed

135

Surgical puncture with a needle through the abdominal and uterine walls to obtain amniotic fluid to evaluate fetus

Amniocentesis

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Procedure in which film is exposed as ionizing radiation passes through the patient and shows the internal body structures in profile

Radiographs

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Diagnostic test using high-frequency waves to evaluate internal structures.

Ultrasound

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Termination of pregnancy

Abortion

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Absence of sperm in the semen

Azoospermia

140

Abnormal noncancerous enlargement of the prostate

Benign prostatic hypertrophy, also called prostatomegaly or enlarged prostate

141

Inflammation of the neck of the uterus

Cervicitis

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Developmental defect in which one or both testes fail to descend into the scrotum

Cryptorchidism or undescended testicle(s)

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Unilaterally cryptorchid

Monorchid

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Difficult birth

Dystocia

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Fertilized ovum implanted outside the uterus

Ectopic pregnancy

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Inflammation of the epididymis

Epididymitis

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Abnormalities that occur in the development of the fetus

Fetal defects

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Substances that produce defects in the fetus

Teratogens

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Substances that produce change or that create genetic abnormalities

Mutagens

150

Benign tumor arising from the smooth muscle of the uterus

Fibroid, also called leiomyoma

151

Condition of having both ovarian and testicular tissue

Hermaphroditism

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Condition of having gonads of one sex but the physical characteristics of both sexes

Pseudohermaphroditism

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Inflammation of the mammary gland(s)

Mastitis

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Inflammation of the uterus

Metritis

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Deficient amount of sperm in semen

Oligospermia (oligo- prefix for scant or few)

156

Inflammation of the gonads of the male

Orchitis also called testitis

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Collection of fluid or solid material in the female gonad

Ovarian cyst

158

Retraction of the skin of the prepuce causing a painful swelling of the glans penis that prevents penis from being retracted (is extruded, but cannot be returned to its normal position)

Paraphimosis

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Narrowing of skin of the prepuce so that it cannot be retracted

Phimosis

160

Conformational defect in the perineum of cows and mares that allows air to enter the vagina

Pneumovagina also called windsuckers

161

Persistent penile erection not associated with sexual excitement

Priapism

162

Inflammation of the prostate

Prostatitis

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False pregnancy

Pseudocyesis also called pseudopregnancy (pseudo- prefix for false)

164

Pus in the uterus

Pyometra

165

Non-passage of the placenta after delivery of fetus

Retained placenta

166

Hernia of fluid in the testes or along the spermatic cord

Scrotal hydrocele (Hydro- prefix for water; -cele suffix meaning hernia)

167

Inability to produce

Sterility

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More than the normal number

Supernumerary

169

Naturally occuring, sexually transmitted tumor of dogs that affects the external genitalia and other mucous membrances

Transmissible venereal tumor, abbrev. TVT

170

Protrusion of the uterus through the vaginal orifice

Uterine prolapse

171

Protrusion of the vagina through the vaginal wall or vaginal orifice

Vaginal prolapse

172

Inflammation of the vagina

Vaginitis

173

Manual use of hands or equipment to aid in delivery of fetus

Assisted delivery

174

Delivery of offspring through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterine walls

Cesarean section, also called C-section

175

Method of collecting semen for artificial insemination or examination in which electrical stimulation is applied to the nerves to promote ejaculation

Electroejaculation (device is called an electroejaculator)

176

Surgical incision of the perineum and vagina to facilitate delivery of the fetus and to prevent damage to maternal structures

Episiotomy

177

Cutting apart of a fetus to enable removal from the uterus

Fetotomy, also called embryotomy

178

Surgical removal of the uterus

Hysterectomy

179

Surgical removal of the mammary gland or breast

Mastectomy

180

To sexually alter (usually used with males)

Neuter

181

Animal that is not neutered or has reproductive capability

Intact

182

Surgical removal of the ovary (ovaries)

Oophorectomy

183

Surgical removal of the testis (testes)

Orchidectomy; Orchectomy; Orchiectomy; and Castration

184

Surgical removal of the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus

Ovariohysterectomy, also called spay; abbrev. OHE or OVH

185

Sterilization of a male in which a portion of the ductus deferens is surgically removed, yet the animal may retain its libido

Vasectomy

186

Sexual desire

Libido