Chapter 10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Deck (51):
1

ankylosis

stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion

2

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)

3

claudication

lameness, limping

4

contracture

fibrosis of CT in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint

5

crepitation

dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction

6

electromyography

use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction

7

exacerbation

increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms

8

ganglion cyst

tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist (to treat: inject with anti-inflammatory agent)

9

hemarthrosis

effusion of blood into a joint cavity

10

hypotonia

loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching

11

multiple myeloma

primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow (progressive, typically fatal disease that causes multiple tumor masses and bone fractures)

12

osteophyte

bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord also called bone spur

13

phantom limb

perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists

14

prosthesis

replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity

15

rickets

form of osteomalacia in children caused by vit D deficiency, also called rachitis

16

sequestrum

fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue

17

spondylolisthesis

any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it

18

spondylosis

degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues (may cause pressure on nerve roots w/subsequent pain or paresthesia in the extremities)

19

sprain

tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete

20

strain

to exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular

21

subluxation

partial or incomplete dislocation

22

talipes equinovarus

congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called clubfoot (the heel never rests on the ground - treatment: casts to straighten the foot)

23

chondrosarcoma

cartilaginous sarcoma

24

comminuted fracture

describes a bone that has splintered into pieces

25

Ewing sarcoma

type of sarcoma that attacks the shafts rather than the ends of long bones

26

gout

metabolic disease caused by accumulation of uric acid, usually in the big toe

27

greenstick fracture

bone that is partially bent and partially broken; occurs in children

28

hematopoiesis

development and production of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

29

kyphosis

exaggeration of the thoracic curve of the vertebral column; hunpback

30

muscular dystrophy

disease causing degeneration of muscles

31

myasthenia gravis

chronic neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness manifested in ocular muscles

32

necrosis

death of cells, tissues, or organs

33

osteoporosis

disease caused by a decrease in bone density; occurs in the eldery

34

pyogenic

formation of pus

35

scoliosis

deviation of the spine to the right or left

36

spondylitis

inflammation of the vertebrae

37

myelography

radiograph of spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium

38

open reduction

treatment of bone fractures by use of surgery to place bones in normal position

39

gold salts

used to treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity with the immune system

40

CTS

painful disorder of the wrist and hand due to compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel

41

laminectomy

excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra

42

arthrography

series of joint radiographs preceded by injection of a radiopaque substance or air into the joint cavity

43

arthrodesis

surgical binding or immobilizing of a joint

44

amputation

partial or complete removal of a limb

45

HNP

herniated nucleus pulposus

46

salicylates

relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation

47

arthroscopy

visual examination of a joint's interior, especially the knee

48

sequestrectomy

excising a segment of necrosed bone

49

ACL

anterior cruciate ligament

50

relaxants

relieve muscle spasms and stiffness

51

closed reduction

manipulative treatment of bone fractures by placing the bones in normal position without incision