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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (62):
1

acidosis

excessive acidity of body fluids

2

anosmia

absence of the sense of smell

3

apnea

temporary loss of breathing

4

sleep apnea

sleeping disorder in which breathing stops repeatedly for more than 10 seconds, causing measurable blood deoxygenation

5

What are the 3 types of apnea?

1. obstructive (enlarged tonsils and adenoids)
2. central (failure of the brain to transmit impulses for breathing)
3. mixed (combination of obstructive and central)

6

asphyxia

condition caused by insufficient intake of oxygen

7

atelectasis

collapsed or airless state of the lung, which may be acute or chronic and affect all or part of a lung

8

cheyne-Stokes respiration

repeated breathing pattern characterized by fluctuation in the depth of respiration, first deeply, then shallow, then not at all

9

compliance

ease with which lung tissue can be stretched

10

coryza

head cold; upper respiratory infection

11

crackle

abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, caused by exudates, spasms, hyperplasia, or when air enters moisture-filled alveoli; also called rale

12

croup

common childhood condition involving inflammation of the larynx, trachea, bronchial passages, and sometimes lungs

13

deviated nasal septum

displacement of cartilage dividing the nostrils

14

epiglottitis

severe, life-threatening infection of the epiglottis and supraglottic structures that occur most commonly in children between 2 and 12

15

epistaxis

nosebleed; nasal hemorrhage

16

finger clubbing

enlargement of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes, commonly associated with pulmonary disease

17

hypoxemia

deficiency of oxygen in the blood

18

hypoxia

deficiency of oxygen in tissues

19

pertussis

acute infectious disease characterized by a cough that has a "whoop" sound; also called whooping cough

20

pleurisy

inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by coughing or deep breathing; also called pleuritis

21

pneumoconiosis

disease caused by inhaling dust particles, including coal dust (anthrocosis), stone dust (chalicosis), iron dust (siderosis), and asbestos particles (asbestosis)

22

pulmonary edema

accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung tissue and alveoli, caused most commonly by heart failure, and induces cough and dyspnea

23

pulmonary embolus

blockage in an artery of the lung caused by a mass of undissolved matter (such as a blood clot, tissue, air bubbles, and bacteria)

24

rhonchus

abnormal breath sound heard on auscultation; rattling sound like snoring

25

stridor

high-pitched, harsh, adventitious breath sound caused by a spasm or swelling of the larynx or an obstruction in the upper airway

26

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently normal, healthy infant, usually less than 12 months of age; also called crib death

27

wheeze

whistling or sighing sound heard on auscultation that results from narrowing of the lumen of the respiratory passageway

28

Mantoux test

intradermal test to determine tuberculin sensitivity based on a positive reaction where the area around the test site becomes red and swollen

29

oximetry

noninvasive method of monitoring the percentage of hemoglobin saturated with oxygen; also called pulse oximetry

30

polysomnography

test of sleep cycles and stages

31

pulmonary function tests

multiple tests used to evaluate the ability of the lungs to take in and expel air as well as perform gas exchange across the alveolocapillary membrane

32

spirometry

measurement of ventilatory ability by assessing lung capacity and flow, including the time necessary for exhaling the total volume of inhaled air

33

bronchoscopy

visual examination of the bronchi using an endoscope (through the nose or mouth and trachea)

34

laryngoscopy

visual examination of the larynx to detect tumors, foreign bodies, nerve or structural injury, or other abnormalities

35

mediastinoscopy

visual examination of the mediastinal structures including the heart, trachea, esophagus, bronchus, thymus, and lymph nodes

36

lavage

irrigating or washing out of an organ, stomach, bladder, bowel, or body cavity with a stream of water or other fluid

37

antral lavage

irrigation or washing of the antrum (maxillary sinus) in chronic or non responsive sinusitis

38

postural drainage

positioning a patient so that gravity aids in the drainage of secretions from the bronchi and lobes of the lungs

39

pleurectomy

excision of part of the pleura, usually parietal

40

pneumectomy

excision of a lung

41

rhinoplasty

reconstruction of the nose to correct deformities or for cosmetic purposes

42

septoplasty

surgical repair of a deviated nasal septum usually performed when septum is encroaching on a breathing passages or nasal structures

43

thoracentesis

surgical puncture and drainage of the pleural cavity; also called peurocentesis or thoracocentesis

44

tracheostomy

surgical procedure in which an opening is made in the neck and into the trachea into which a breathing tube may be inserted

45

empyema

pus in the pleural cavity

46

surfactant

phospholipid that allows the lungs to expand with ease

47

consolidation

loss of sponginess of lungs due to engorgement

48

auscultation

listening to chest sounds using a stethoscope

49

tubercles

granulomas associated with tuberculosis

50

emphysema

disease characterized by a decrease in alveolar elasticity

51

lung scan

imaging procedure that uses radionuclide to evaluate blood flow in the lungs

52

radiography

producing images using an x-ray machine

53

antihistamine

relieves sneezing, runny nose, itchiness, and rashes

54

antitussive

relieves or suppresses coughing

55

sweat test

used primarily in children to confirm cystic fibrosis

56

AFB

TB organism

57

aerosol therapy

inhalation of medication directly into the respiratory system via a nebulizer

58

decongestant

decreases mucous membrane swelling by constricting blood vessels

59

ABGs

laboratory tests to assess gases and pH of arterial blood

60

expectorant

reduces the viscosity of sputum to facilitate productive coughing

61

throat culture

used to identify pathogens, especially group A streptococci

62

pulmonary function tests

multiple tests used to determine the ability of lungs and capillary membranes to exchange oxygen