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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (60):
1

aneurysm

Localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery

2

arrest

Condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop

3

cardiac arrest

loss of effective cardiac function, which results in cessation of circulation

4

circulatory arrest

cessation of the circulation of blood due to ventricular standstill or fibrillation

5

arrhythmia

inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus ryhthm, possibly including a rapid or slow beat or "skipping" a beat; also called dysrthythmia

6

bruit

soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both; also called murmur

7

cardiomyopathy

any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminished cardiac function

8

catheter

thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery, or tubular structure

9

coarctation

narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta

10

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs

11

ejection fraction (EF)

calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction. left ventricular EF averages 50-70% in healthy hearts

12

heart failure (HF)

failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs

13

embolus

mass of undissolved matter (foreign object, air, gas tissue, thrombus) circulating in blood or lymphatic channels until it becomes lodged in a vessel

14

fibrillation

quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions

15

hemostasis

arrest of bleeding or circulation

16

hyperlipidemia

excessive amounts of lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides) in the blood

17

hypertension (HTN)

common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic.

18

Primary hypertension

HTN in which there is no identifiable cause; also called essential hypertension. most common form

19

Secondary hypertension

HTN that results from an underlying, identifiable, commonly correctable cause

20

hypertensive heart disease

any heart disorder caused by prolonged hypertension, including left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure

21

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)

implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrilation by sending electric impulses to the heart

22

infarct

area of tissue that undergoes necrosis following cessation of blood supply

23

ischemia

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction

24

mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

common and occasionally serious condition in which the leaflets of teh mitral valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole causing a characteristic murmur heard on ausculation (common s/s = palpitations, panic attacks)

25

radioisotope

chemical radioactive material used as a tracer to follow a substance through the body or a structure

26

palpitation

sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including: Thumping, fluttering, skipped beats, or a pounding feeling in the chest

27

patent ductus arteriosus

failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth, allowing blood to flow from the aorta into the pulmonary (lung) artery

28

perfusion

circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ

29

tetralogy of fallot

congenital anomaly consisting of four elements: 1. pulmonary artery stenosis; 2. interventricular septal defect; 3/ transposition of the aorta, so that both ventricles empy into the aorta; 4. right ventricular hypertrophy caused by increased workload of the right ventricle

30

stent

slender or threadlike device used to hold open vessels, tubes, or obstructed arteries

31

thrombus

blood clot that obstructs a vessel

32

cardiac catheterization (CC)

passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart (look at blood flow)

33

electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG)

graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs (help diagnose abnormal heart rhythms)

34

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

35

incompetent

inability of a valve to close completely

36

angina

chest pain

37

varices

varicose veins of the esophagus

38

vegetations

small masses of inflammatory material found on the leaflets of valves

39

Holter Monitor test

24- hour ECG tracing taken with a small, portable recording system

40

echocardiography

noninvasive ultrasound diagnostic test used to visualize internal cardiac structures

41

coronary angiography

radiological examination of the blood vessels of and around the heart

42

nitrates

agents used to treat angina

43

statins

drugs that have powerful lipid-lowering properties

44

diuretics

management of edema associated with heart failure and hypertension

45

cardiac enzyme studies

include troponin T, troponin I, creatinine kinase

46

scintigraphy

injection and detection of radioactive isotopes to create images and identify function and disease

47

stress test

ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions

48

ligation and stripping

tying of a varicose vein and subsequent removal

49

commissurotomy

surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve

50

arterial biopsy

removal of a small segment of an artery for diagnostic purposes

51

catheter ablation

destruction of conductive tissue of the heart to interrupt abnormal contractions

52

embolization

technique used to block blood flow to a site by injecting an occluding agent

53

angioplasty

procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation

54

PTCA

dilation of an occluded vessel using a balloon catheter

55

CABG

surgery that creates a bypass around a blocked segment of a coronary artery

56

atherectomy

removal of occluding material using a cutting or grinding device

57

venipuncture

incision or puncture of a vein to remove blood or introduce fluids

58

thrombolysis

destruction of a blood clot

59

hypercholesterolemia

elevation of cholesterol in the blood. has been associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis

60

ventricular fibrillation

the heart quivers rather than beats, and blood is not pumped to the brain. can cause death unless treatment in 5-10 minutes