Chapter 10- DNA Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10- DNA Deck (63):
1

Transformation

Transfer of genetic material

2

Bacteriophage

When virus infects bacteria

3

Avery + his colleagues showed that the transforming agent in Griffiths experiment was _____

DNA

4

Hershey's and Chase's experiment showed

DNA is the heredity molecule in viruses

5

The S strain and R strain of S. pneumoniae are different in that __________

The S strain produces a capsule but the R strain doesn't

6

Elements in DNA

CHNOPS

7

Elements in protein

CHONS

8

Complementary base pair

Pair of nitrogen bases connected by hydrogen bonds

9

Nitrogenous base

Base containing nitrogen and carbon

10

Primary function of DNA cells is to

Store info that tells cells for which proteins to make

11

2 strands of DNA molecules are held together by

Hydrogen bonds

12

Guanine binds with

Cytosine

13

Adenine binds with

Thymine

14

Percentage of DNA is

= to the % of adenine in DNA

15

3 parts of a DNA Nucleotide

-a deoxyribose sugar
- nitrogen base
- phosphate group


All connected by sugar 😱

16

Importance of complementary base pairing in a DNA structure

Holds DNA together and serves as a way to replicate itself

17

Who determined that the structure of DNA is a double helix??

Watson and Crick

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KNOW HOW TO LABEL A DNA MOLECULE

πŸŽ‰πŸŽ‰πŸŽ‰πŸŽ‰πŸΆβ€οΈπŸ˜‘πŸ˜–πŸ˜„πŸ˜·πŸ˜žπŸ˜œπŸ™πŸΌπŸ•πŸ˜’πŸ™πŸΌπŸ˜–πŸ˜…πŸ˜žπŸ˜œπŸŽ¨πŸΈπŸ˜–πŸ˜¬πŸ•β€οΈπŸ˜πŸ˜πŸ’…πŸ˜•πŸ™πŸΌπŸ˜’πŸ™πŸΌπŸ™ƒπŸ˜­πŸ‘πŸΌπŸ˜žπŸ˜„πŸ’‘πŸ™πŸΌπŸ˜–πŸ™ƒπŸ˜œπŸ˜žπŸ˜„πŸ’‘πŸ™πŸΌπŸ’‘πŸ™πŸΌπŸ˜žπŸ™πŸΌπŸ˜žπŸ’‘πŸ™πŸΌπŸ’‘πŸ˜œπŸ’‘πŸ’‘πŸ’‘πŸ’‘πŸ’‘πŸ’‘πŸ’‘

19

What is DNA??

Information that determines organisms traits

20

DNA produces ____

Protein

21

DNA is made of repeating subunits called

Nucleotides

22

DNA stands for

A deoxyribonucleic acid

23

What r chromosomes made of??

DNA
Protein

24

What r the rings made of in a DNA molecule??

Nitrogen bases

25

What r the rungs attached to???

Each other
Deoxyribose sugar

26

Helicase

Unwinds the DNA strand

27

mRNA

Messenger from nucleus to ribosomes

28

rRNA

Makes up ribosomes with proteins

29

tRNA

Moves amino acids transfer into ribosomes

30

How does info from DNA get to cytoplasm??

mRNA

31

Ligase

(Like glue 😜)
Sticks the 2 strands together

32

Which pass does cell replication occur??

Interphase (S phase)

33

Semi-conservative replication

2 copies of DNA half old half new

34

Before replication takes place

2 strands of DNA must separate

35

Virulent

Causes disease

36

A mutation is

A change in the nucleotide sequence

37

Why does replication occur so quickly in eukaryotes???

Occurs simultaneously

38

Codon

Sequence of 3 mRNA nucleotides

39

Translation

Nucleotides forming q genetic code

40

A protein is a polymer consisting of a specific sequence of

Amino acids

41

During translation, one end of a tRNA molecule pairs with a complementary

mRNA

42

In eukaryotic cells, RNA is copied from DNA in the

Nucleus

43

Transcriptions purpose

To create a single stranded RNA molecule

44

What is translation

Process of changing the information from an order of nitrogen bases mRNA into amino acids

45

Where does transcription take place??

Nucleus -> DNA is only found in the nucleus and can't get out of it

46

Point mutation

Chance 1 amino acid

-isn't always bad

47

Frameshift mutation

-addition or deletion of s base

-more dangerous

48

Inversion mutation

DNA sequence is flipped

49

Translocation mutation

Sequence breaks off and and reinserted somewhere else

50

Beetle and Tatum

Connections between enzymes and genes

51

Hershey and Chase

-bacteria carries instructions to replicate oh ages in bacteria

52

Watson and Crick

Completly sure DNA structure looks like

53

Wobble hypothesis
_____ codons
______ amino acids

64 codons
20 amino acids

54

Purpose of DNA

Provides
- genetic instructions
- long term storage of info

55

Purpose of RNA

Associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes

56

The smooth strain in griffiths experiment is _____

Virulent

57

Rough strain of griffiths experiment _____

Nonvirulent

58

Replication

Synthesis of an identical copy of a DNA strand

59

Transcription

Synthesis of mRNA molecule

60

Translation

Synthesis of polypeptide from amino acids

61

Codon

Base triplet on mRNA

62

Anticodon

Complementary triplet on tRNA

63

Polypeptide

Protein molecule