Chapter 2-Chemistry Of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2-Chemistry Of Life Deck (69):
1

Mass

The amount of matter an object has

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Weight

the force made by gravity acting on mass

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Elements

Substances that cannot be broken down chemically into similar kinds of matter

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Periodic table

information about the elements

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Atom

-The simplest particle of an element
-retains all the properties of that Element

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Nucleus

The Central of an atom

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Proton

positively charged particles

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Neutron

Neutrally charged (no charge)

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Atomic number

The number of protons an Atom has

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Mass number

equal to the total number of protons and neutrons of the atom

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Electrons

Negatively charged particles

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Orbital

indicates the location of the electrons

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Isotopes

Atoms of the same Element that have a different number of neutrons

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Compounds

made of Atoms of two or more elements in fixed properties

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Chemical bonds

The attractive forces that hold atoms together

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Covalent bonds

Forms when to Atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

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Molecule

-The simplest part of a substance

-retains all the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state.

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Ion

no electrical charge

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Ionic bond

When positive and negative charges attract each other

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Matter

Everything that occupies space and mass

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Polar

An uneven distribution of a charge

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Hydrogen bond

The attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a positive charge and another atom or molecule with a positive charge

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Cohesion

An attractive Force that holds molecules of a single substance together

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Adhesion

The attractive force between two particles of different substances

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Capillarity

The attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid

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Solution

A mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance

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Solute

A substance dissolved in the solvent

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Solvent

The substance in which the solute is dissolved

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Concentration

The amount of solvent dissolved in a fixed amount of solution

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Saturated solution

One in which no more solute can dissolve

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Aqueous Solutions

Solutions in which water is the solvent

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Hydroxide ion

The oh- ion

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Hydronium ion

An ion consisting of a proton combined by molecule of water: H3O+

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Acid

-Any compound that increases the number of hydronium ions when dissolved in water
-acids turn blue litmus paper read and react with bases and some metals from salts

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Base

-Any compound that increases the number of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
-bases turn red litmus paper blue and react with acids to form salts

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pH scale

A range of values that are used to express the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a system; each whole number on the scale indicates a tenfold change in Acidity; a pH of 7 is neutral, a pH of less then 7 is acidic, and a pH of greater then 7 is basic

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Buffer

-A solution made from a weak acid

-neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it

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Activation energy

The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction

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Catalysis

The acceleration of a chemical reaction by a catalyst

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Reactant

A substance that participates in a chemical reaction

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Product

A substance that forms in a chemical reaction

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Enzyme

A molecule either protein or RNA that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions

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Non-Polar

A covalent compound where electrons one are shared equally

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Organic compound

Made up primarily of carbon Atoms

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Functional groups

Clusters of atoms in most organic compounds

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Monomers

carbon atoms built up from smaller simple molecules

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Polymer

Is a molecule that consist of repeated linked units

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Macromolecules

Large polymers

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Condensation reaction

Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction

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Hydrolysis

The breakdown of some complex molecules such as Polymers

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Adenosine triphosphate (atp)

The place where large amounts of energy is stored

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Carbohydrates

-Organic compounds
-composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
-in the ratio of about One carbon Adam per to two hydrogen Atoms to one oxygen Atom

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Monosaccharides

A monomer of a carbohydrate

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Disaccharide

Two monosaccharides combined in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar

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Polysaccharide

Is a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides

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Proteins

Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon hydrogen oxygen and Nitrogen

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Amino acids

Linkage of monomers

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Peptide bond

When two amino acids form a covalent bond

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Polypeptides

Proteins are composed of one or more polypeptides

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Enzymes

-Rna or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
-essential for the functioning of any cell

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Substrate

The reactant being catalyzed

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Active site

Folds in the enzyme

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Lipids

Larger, nopolar organic molecules

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Fatty acids

Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids

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Phospholipids

Two rather then three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol

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Nucleic acids

-large and complex organic molecules
-store and transfer important information in the cell

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Dna

-Contains information that determines the characteristics of the organism

-directs it's a living activities

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Rna

-Stores and transfers information from DNA
-essential for the manufacturing of proteins

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Nucleotide

Made of three main components: --a phosphate group,
-five carbon sugar
-a ring shaped nitrogenous base.