Chapter 10. Nervous System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

Language of Medicine > Chapter 10. Nervous System - Medical Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 10. Nervous System - Medical Terms Deck (150):
1

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells

2

afferent nerve

carries nervous impulses toward the brain and spinal cord; sensory nerve

3

akinetic

pertaining to loss or absence of voluntary movement

4

analgesia

absence of sensitivity to pain

5

aphasia

inability to speak; language function is impaired due to injury to the cerebral cortex

6

apraxia

inability to perform purposeful acts or manipulate objects

7

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord

8

astrocyte

glial (neuroglial) cell that transports salts and water from capillaries

9

ataxia

without coordination

10

autonomic nervous system

nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs

11

axon

microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell

12

blood-brain barrier

blood vessels that let certain substances enter the brain tissue3 and keep other substances out

13

bradykinesia

slow movement

14

brainstem

lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord

15

cauda equina

collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord

16

causalgia

intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves

17

cell body

part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus

18

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

19

cephalgia

head pain; headache

20

cerebellar

pertaining to the cerebellum

21

cerebellopontine

pertaining to the cerebellum and pons

22

cerebral cortex

outer region of the cerebrum

23

cerebrospinal fluid

clear, watery fluid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

24

cerebrum

largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought and memory, among other functions

25

coma

state of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused

26

comatose

pertaining to a coma

27

cranial nerves

twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain

28

dendrite

microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse

29

dura mater

thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord

30

dyskinesia

impairment of the ability to perform voluntary movements

31

dyslexia

difficulty in reading, writing, and learning

32

efferent nerve

carries messages away from the brain to the spinal cord; motor nerve

33

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

34

encephalopathy

disease of the brain

35

ependymal cell

a glial cell that lines the membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid

36

epidural hematoma

collection of blood located above the dura mater

37

ganglion

collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system; plural is ganglia

38

glial cell

nervous system cell that is supportive and connective in function: Astrocyte, microglial cell, ependymal cell

39

glioblastoma

rapidly growing malignant tumor of the brain

40

gyrus, gyri

sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded fold on the surface of the cerebrum

41

hemiparesis

slight paralysis of the right or left half of the body

42

hemiplegia

paralysis of the right or left half of the body

43

hypalgesia

diminished sensitivity to pain

44

hyperesthesia

excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain

45

hyperkinesis

excessive movement

46

hypothalamus

portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland

47

intrathecal

pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord

48

leptomeningeal

pertaining to the two thinner membranes (arachnoid membrane and pia mater) surrounding the brain and spinal cord

49

medulla oblongata

lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and size of size of blood vessels

50

meningeal

pertaining to meninges

51

meninges

three membranes surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord

52

meningioma

tumor (benign) of the meninges

53

microglial cell

phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products from the central nervous system

54

motor nerve

carries impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles

55

myelin sheath

fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell

56

myelogram

x-ray record (with contrast) of the spinal cord

57

myelomeningocele

congenital hernia (protrusion) of the spinal cord and meninges through a defect (gap) in the vertebral column, this defect is often associated with spina bifida

58

myoneural

pertaining to muscle and nerve

59

narcolepsy

sudden seizures of sleep

60

nerve

macroscopic cordlike collection of fibers that carry electrical impulses

61

neuralgia

nerve pain

62

neurasthenia

lack of strength in nerves; a feeling of weakness and exhaustion

63

neuroglia

supporting cells (stroma) of the nervous system; glial cells

64

neuron

nerve cell

65

neuropathy

disease of nerves; primarily in the peripheral nervous system

66

neurotransmitter

chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell

67

oligodendroglial cell

glial (neuroglial) cell that forms the myelin sheath covering the axon of a neuron

68

paraplegia

paralysis of the lower part of the body and both legs

69

parasympathetic nerves

involuntary, autonomic, nerves that regulate normal body functions, such as heart rate, breathing, and the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract

70

parenchyma

essential, functioning cells of any organ; neurons (nerve cells) are the parenchyma of the nervous system

71

paresis

slight paralysis

72

paresthesia

abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause; examples are tingling, numbness or prickling sensations

73

peripheral nervous system

nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves

74

pia mater

thin, delicate, innermost membrane of the meninges

75

plexus

network of nerves outside of the central nervous system; brachial, cervical, lumbosacral plexuses are examples

76

poliomyelitis

inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord

77

polyneuritis

inflammation of many nerves

78

pons

part of the brainstem anterior to the cerebellum, between the medulla and the rest of the brain; the pons connects the upper and lower portions of the brain

79

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs; both arms and both legs

80

radiculitis

inflammation of a spinal nerve root

81

radiculopathy

disease of a spinal nerve root

82

receptor

organ that receives nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves that carry the stimulation to the brain and spinal cord; skin, ears, eyes and taste buds

83

sciatic nerve

extends from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot; sciatica is pain along the course of the nerve

84

sensory nerve

carries messages to the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve

85

spinal nerves

thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord; each spinal nerve affects a particular area of the skin

86

stimulus

agent of change (light, sound, touch) that evokes a response

87

stroma

connective and supportive tissue of an organ

88

subdural hematoma

collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain

89

sulcus, sulci

depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure

90

sympathetic nerves

autonomic nerves that activate responses in times of stress; heartbeat, respiration, and blood pressure are affected

91

synapse

space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells

92

syncopal

pertaining to a syncope (fainting)

93

syncope

fainting; temporary loss of consciousness

94

thalamic

pertaining to the thalamus

95

thalamus

main relay center of the brain; located in the central region or diencephalon of the brain

96

trigeminal neuralgia

flashes of stab like pain along the course of a branch of the trigeminal nerve (5th crainial nerve); the trigeminal nerve has branches to the eye, upper jaw and lower jaw

97

vagal

pertaining to the vagus nerve

98

vagus nerve

tenth cranial nerve with branches to the chest and abdominal organs

99

ventricles of the brain

fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) filled canals in the brain

100

absence seizure

minor form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of contact with the environment

101

alzheimer disease

brain disorder marked by progressive, gradual mental deterioration (dementia) along with personality and impairment of daily functioning

102

amyotropic lateral sclerosis

degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem and resulting in total body paralysis

103

aneurysm

weakening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

104

astrocytoma

brain tumor composed of astrocytes (glial cells); the most serious of these tumors is a glioblastoma multiforme (Grades III and IV malignant brain tumor)

105

aura

peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms

106

bell palsy

unilateral paralysis of the face caused by a disorder of the facial nerve

107

cerebral angiography

x-ray record of blood vessels in the brain after intravenous injection of contrast material

108

cerebral concussion

temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury; usually clearing within 24 hours

109

cerebral contusion

bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic disorder persists longer than 24 hours

110

cerebral hemorrhage

bursting of an artery in the brain

111

cerebral palsy

partial paralysis and muscular coordination caused by loss of oxygen or blood flow to the cerebrum during pregnancy or in the perinatal period

112

cerebrospinal fluid analysis

samples of cerebrospinal fluid are examined for blood, cells, protein, glucose, tumor cells, bacteria and other substances

113

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

disruption of the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke

114

computed tomography

cross-sectional x-ray imaging of an organ (such as the brain or spinal cord) with or without contrast material

115

dementia

mental decline and deterioration

116

demyelination

destruction of myelin on axons of nerves (as in multiple sclerosis)

117

dopamine

neurotransmitter in the central nervous system; deficient in patients with Parkinson disease

118

Doppler ultrasound studies

sound waves are used to detect blood flow in arteries within the brain leading to the brain

119

electroencephalography

process of recording the electricity within the brain

120

embolus

blood clot that is carried by the bloodstream from one area of the body to another where it blocks a blood vessel

121

epilepsy

brain disorder marked by recurrent attacks (seizures) or abnormal nervous impulses

122

gait

manner of walking

123

glioblastoma

highly malignant brain tumor composed of glial cells (astrocytes)

124

herpes zoster

viral infection affecting peripheral nerves

125

HIV encephalopathy

disease of the brain (dementia) caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

126

Huntington disease

hereditary disorder affecting the cerebrum and involving abrupt, involuntary, jerking movements and mental deterioration in later stages

127

hydrocephalus

abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles (canals) of the brain

128

ictal event

pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as the convulsion of an epileptic seizure

129

lumbar puncture

withdrawal of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space between two lumbar vertebrae; spinal tap

130

magnetic resonance imaging

magnetic and radio waves create an image of an organ three planes of the body; the brain and spinal cord can be imaged to detect lesions

131

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

132

meningocele

hernia of the meninges through a defect or space between vertebrae; a form of spina bifida cystica

133

migraine

a severe headache that is often accompanied by nausea and vomiting

134

multiple sclerosis

chronic neurologic disorder marked by destruction of the myelin sheath on neuronal axons in the CNS and replacement by plaques of sclerotic tissue

135

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles

136

migraine

a severe headache, often unilateral, and sometimes accompanies by nausea and vomiting

137

occlusion

blockage or obstruction

138

palliative

relieving symptoms, but not curative

139

palsy

paralysis

140

Parkinson disease

degeneration of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter, dopamine in the brain; leads to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement

141

positron emission tomography

computerized radiologic procedure using radioactive glucose or oxygen to image the metabolic activity of cells, such as brain cells

142

shingles

viral (herpes zoster) illness that affects peripheral nerves; produces blisters and pain on the skin overlying the path of peripheral nerves

143

spina bifida

congenital defect in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts; spinal cord and meninges may herniate through the vertebral gap

144

stereotactic radiosurgery

use of a specialized instrument using three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on

145

thrombus

blood clot

146

tic

involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face

147

tonic-clonic seizure

a major seizure affecting the brain in epilepsy

148

tourette syndrome

neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics

149

transient ischemic attack

fleeting episode of ischemia (holding back blood) in the brain

150

cerebellum

controls body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions, and the pituitary gland

Decks in Language of Medicine Class (49):