Chapter 7. Urinary System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

Language of Medicine > Chapter 7. Urinary System - Medical Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 7. Urinary System - Medical Terms Deck (84)
Loading flashcards...
1

acetone

ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells

2

albuminuria

protein in the urine

3

antidiuretic hormone

pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excessive loss of water; also called vasopressin

4

anuria

suppression of urine formation by the kidney

5

arteriole

small artery

6

azotemia

excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood; uremia

7

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

8

caliceal

pertaining to the calyx (a cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney)

9

caliectasis

dilation or widening of a calyx; this occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis

10

calyx; calyces

cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney)

11

catheter

tube for injecting or removing fluids

12

cortex

outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney

13

cortical

pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ)

14

creatinine

nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine

15

creatinine clearance test

measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney

16

cystectomy

excision (removal) of the urinary bladder

17

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

18

cytoscopy

visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder

19

cystostomy

new opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

20

diabetes insipidus

abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland; patients experience polyruria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst)

21

diabetes mellitus

abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas; this leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine)

22

diuresis

increased excretion of urine by the kidneys; a diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee, or water

23

dysuria

painful urination

24

edema

abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces

25

electrolyte

chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water; examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-)

26

enuresis

betwetting; literally, "in urine"

27

erythropoietin

hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow

28

essential hypertension

high blood pressure due to no apparent cause

29

filtration

process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material

30

glomerular capsule

collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus; also known as Bowman capsule

Decks in Language of Medicine Class (49):