Chapter 7. Urinary System - Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7. Urinary System - Medical Terms Deck (84):
1

acetone

ketone body produced in abnormal amounts in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, when there is excessive fat breakdown in cells

2

albuminuria

protein in the urine

3

antidiuretic hormone

pituitary gland hormone that normally stimulates the kidney to decrease production of urine, preventing excessive loss of water; also called vasopressin

4

anuria

suppression of urine formation by the kidney

5

arteriole

small artery

6

azotemia

excess of nitrogenous waste products in the blood; uremia

7

bacteriuria

bacteria in the urine

8

caliceal

pertaining to the calyx (a cup-shaped collecting chamber in the central portion of the kidney)

9

caliectasis

dilation or widening of a calyx; this occurs when urine is backed up in the kidney as in hydronephrosis

10

calyx; calyces

cup-shaped collecting region in the renal pelvis (central section of the kidney)

11

catheter

tube for injecting or removing fluids

12

cortex

outer region of an organ; renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney

13

cortical

pertaining to the cortex (outer region of an organ)

14

creatinine

nitrogen-containing waste product of muscle metabolism; excreted by the kidney in urine

15

creatinine clearance test

measures the rate at which creatinine is cleared from the blood by the kidney

16

cystectomy

excision (removal) of the urinary bladder

17

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

18

cytoscopy

visual (endoscopic) examination of the urinary bladder

19

cystostomy

new opening of the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

20

diabetes insipidus

abnormal condition of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the pituitary gland; patients experience polyruria (excessive urination) and polydipsia (excessive thirst)

21

diabetes mellitus

abnormal condition of no insulin or inadequate insulin secretion from the pancreas; this leads to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (sugar in the urine)

22

diuresis

increased excretion of urine by the kidneys; a diuretic is an agent that increases diuresis, such as tea, coffee, or water

23

dysuria

painful urination

24

edema

abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissue spaces

25

electrolyte

chemical element that carries an electrical charge when dissolved in water; examples are sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-)

26

enuresis

betwetting; literally, "in urine"

27

erythropoietin

hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate red blood cell production by bone marrow

28

essential hypertension

high blood pressure due to no apparent cause

29

filtration

process by which some substances, but not all, pass through a filter or other type of material

30

glomerular capsule

collects the material that is filtered from the blood through the walls of the glomerulus; also known as Bowman capsule

31

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of glomeruli in the kidney

32

glomerulus; glomeruli

tiny ball of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) in the cortex of the kidney; as blood flows through each glomerulus, waste materials and other substances are filtered from the bloodstream

33

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

34

hematuria

blood in the urine

35

hemodialysis

removal of waste materials (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) from the blood in patients whose kidneys have stopped functioning; blood leaves the body and circulates through a machine that removes wastes before sending the blood back into the body through a vein

36

hilum

depression or hollow in the surface of an organ, such as the kidney and lung; it is the area where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave the organ

37

hydronephrosis

abnormal condition of excess backup of fluid (urine) in the kidney

38

hyperkalemia

high levels of potassium in the blood

39

hyponatremia

low levels of sodium in the blood

40

interstitial nephritis

inflammation of the tissue in the kidney that lies between (interstitium) the nephrons (functional units)

41

intravesical

pertaining to within the bladder

42

ketonuria

presence of ketones in the urine; common in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, but can occur in anytime the body begins to break down fatty tissue to provide energy as in starvation

43

ketosis

accumulation of large quantities of ketone bodies (acetones) in the blood; ketoacidosis

44

kidney

one of two bean-shaped organs behind the abdominal cavity on either side of the backbone in the lumbar region

45

lithotripsy

process of using high-energy sound waves to crush a stone within the kidney or ureter

46

meatal stenosis

narrowing of the meatus (opening) leading from the urethra to the outside of the body

47

meatus

an opening or passageway; the urinary meatus is the opening of the urethra to the outside of the body and the auditory meatus is the opening of the ear to the outside of the body

48

medulla

inner region of an organ

49

medullary

pertaining to the medulla or an organ

50

nephrolithiasis

abnormal condition of kidney stones

51

nephrolithotomy

incision of the kidney to remove a stone

52

nephron

functional unit of the kidney, consisting of a glomerulus, renal tubule, and collecting tubule

53

nephropathy

disease or abnormality of the kidney

54

nephroptosis

prolapse of a kidney; floating or wandering kidney

55

nephrostomy

opening of the kidney to the outside of the body

56

nephrotic syndrome

group of symptoms that occur due to loss of protein in the urine; symptoms include edema, hypoalbuminemia (loss of protein from the blood), heavy proteinuria, and infection; also known as nephrosis

57

nitrogenous waste

substance containing nitrogen and excreted in urine; examples are urea, creatinine and uric acid

58

nocturia

urinary frequency at night

59

oliguria

scanty urination

60

parenchyma

parenchyma of an organ is its essential and distinctive tissue

61

paranephric

pertaining to beside or near a kidney

62

peritoneal dialysis

separation of nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream by introducing fluid into the peritoneal cavity; wastes then leave the bloodstream and enter the fluid, which is drained through an abdominal catheter

63

phenylketonuria

excess of phenylketones in the urine; diagnosed by a PKU test at birth

64

polycystic kidney disease

kidneys are filled with cysts that prevent normal kidney function

65

polydipsia

excessive thirst

66

polyuria

excessive urination

67

potassium

chemical element that forms salts with other minerals such as calcium and is vital for bodily processes; when dissolved in water it is an electrolyte whose balance is regulated by the kidney

68

pyelolithotomy

incision to remove a stone from the renal pelvis of the kidney

69

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney; caused by bacterial infection

70

pyuria

pus in the urine; sign of urinary tract infection (UTI)

71

reabsorption

process in the kidney by which the renal tubules return materials necessary to the body back into the bloodstream

72

renal angiography

x-ray record of blood vessels of the kidney after injecting contrast material

73

renal angioplasty

surgical repair of blood vessels in the kidney, narrowed areas of renal arteries are dilated using an inflatable balloon attached to a catheter

74

uric acid

nitogenous waste formed when proteins are used in cells; it is excreted by the kidneys in urine

75

urinalysis

series of tests to evaluate the composition of urine, it includes tests to determine color, appearance, sugar, bacteria, and protein in the blood

76

urinary bladder

hollow container with muscular walls that holds and stores urine until it is discharged from the body; urinary catheterization is passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine

77

urinary catheterization

passage of a catheter into the urinary bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine

78

urinary incontinence

involuntary passage of urine

79

urinary retention

inability to pass urine, which is held back in the urinary bladder; urination is the process of expelling urine; micturition; voiding

80

urination

process of expelling urine

81

vesicoureteral reflux

backflow of urine from the urinary bladder to the ureters

82

voiding

urination

83

voiding cystourethrogram

x-ray record of the urinary bladder and urethra taken while a patient is urinating and after contrast material is injected retrograde through the urethra

84

wilms tumor

malignant neoplasm of the kidney that occurs in childhood

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